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    2003年, 第13卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2003-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM: THEORETICAL APPROACH AND EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CHINA
    LIU Shu-uang, CHEN Cai
    2003 (3):  193-198. 
    摘要 ( 949 )   PDF(348KB) ( 1669 )  

    Regional innovation system(RIS) is the new research field of modern economic geography in the age of knowledge economy. Based on the researches of regional economic geography, the authors of the paper consider RIS as the integrated and interactive systems with innovation milieu, elements, units, structure and functions. Five aspects of evaluation indicators including innovation input scale and output scale, innovation milieu transition, innovation inner operation, as well as innovation outer impact are worked out for final indicators of RIS scale and quality. According to different RIS situations, three patterns of independent, imitative and cooperative development are put forward for choosing. At the latter part of the paper, we select 12 provincial regions(including three municipalities and one autonomous region) of China for empirical study. The results show that there exists great difference among each region from the aspects of inannovation scale and quality mainly owning to the diversification of RIS social and economic milieu, the major innovative units of enterprises, universities and R&D institutes. Finally, the paper points out the innovation development decisions for each region.

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    QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND FRACTAL MODELING ON THE MOSAIC STRUCTURE OF LANDSCAPE IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF SHANGHAI METROPOLIS
    XU Jian-hua, AI Nan-shan, CHEN Yong, MEI An-xin, LIAO Hong-juan
    2003 (3):  199-206. 
    摘要 ( 915 )   PDF(473KB) ( 1160 )  

    The mosaic structure of landscape of the central area of Shanghai Metropolis is studied by quantitative methods of landscape ecology based on Remote Sensing(RS) and Geographic Information System(GIS) in this paper. Firstly, landscapes are classified into eight categories:residential quarter, industrial quarter, road, other urban landscape, farmland, village and small town, on-building area, river and other water bodies(such as lake, etc.). Secondly, a GIS is designed and set up based on the remote sensing data and field investigation, and a digital map of landscape mosaic is made. Then the indexes of diversity, dominance, fragmentation and isolation, and fractal dimension of each type of landscape in different periods are calculated by using spatial analysis method of GIS. With reference to the calculated results, a series of relative issues are discussed.

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    ANALYSIS OF DRIVING FORCES ON THE CHANGE OF HISTORICAL FARMLAND USE IN SHANDONG PROVINCE DURING THE QING DYNASTY(1644-1911)
    ZHANG Xue-in, GE Quan-heng, ZHENG Jing-un
    2003 (3):  207-215. 
    摘要 ( 903 )   PDF(365KB) ( 1097 )  

    How land-cover has been changed by human use over the last 300 years is one of the five overarching questions guiding the Land-use/Cover Change(LUCC) Science/Research Plan. China has variety of historical documents providing unique data superiority. So the characteristics of farmland area in Shandong Province during the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911) are summarized firstly:1) the rising trend of farmland area was striking;2) farmland area had remarkable fluctuation;3) farmland area per capita decreased dramatically;4) wasteland reclamation index increased rapidly. Then, the driving forces of farmland area change are analyzed. It is concluded that natural and human factors are jointly influential. Among the driving forces, human dimensions are the main factors of farmland area change, which direct the general tendency of the changes mentioned above. And the natural factors influence the stability of farmland area as well. Variation of the natural factors would act as the major contributory factor to farmland area change during years or periods of abrupt climatic changes, or during the intensive occurring periods of natural hazards. Besides, the passive aspects of human factors, such as war chaos also influenced the fluctuation of the farmland area. This research indicates that it is feasible to study the land-use/cover change by Chinese historical literatures, which has huge potential to provide a comprehensive picture of the growing dominance of human land-se and land-over patterns that can be used in many global change research projects.

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    INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY
    ZHANG Ping-yu
    2003 (3):  216-223. 
    摘要 ( 747 )   PDF(335KB) ( 1236 )  

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy, and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old industrial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period(1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long lasting industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, upgrading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be identified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sector. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The secondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy industrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improving Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization, Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

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    AGGLOMERATION AND RADIATION EFFECT OF THE PULL OF URBANIZATION
    QI Jin-li
    2003 (3):  224-227. 
    摘要 ( 900 )   PDF(135KB) ( 1305 )  

    In order to explore the train of thought for China's urbanizing development and coordinated rural economic development, and to find good ways of solving rural problems through urbanization, this paper absorbs the push-and-pull forces theory and the systematic dynamic theory in the traditional population migration theories, views urbanization as a dynamic system, makes research on the push-and-pull mechanism of urbanization. The pulling power of urbanization is analyzed according to two aspects, the agglomeration effect and the radiation effect of cities. The agglomeration effect provides continuous propelling force for urbanization, and the radiation effect further accelerates the urbanization process by pushing forward the development of rural economy. Of course, the slow development of urbanization can result in the hindrance to rural economic development.

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    CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN
    SONG Chang-chun, WANG Yi-yong, WANG Yue-si, YAN Bai-xing WANG De-xuan, ZHAO Zhi-chun, LOU Yan-jing
    2003 (3):  228-231. 
    摘要 ( 881 )   PDF(236KB) ( 1128 )  

    Methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide(CO2) emission was measured from mires in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, by using a static chamber technique during free snow-covered periods. The seasonal mean emission of CH4 was 12.4mg/(m2·h) and the emission range of CO2 was 8.7-16.6g/(m2·d)(gross CO2 flux) during plant growth period. CO2 emission rate in the day was stronger than that at night, and the daily peak appears at 19:00. The mire plants in the Sanjiang Plain begin to sprout at the end of April. The aboveground biomass of the mire plants increased from zero to the peak from July to September and showed single peak form. The aboveground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa(464.8g/m2) was lower than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla(530.8g/m2), but the underground biomass was higher than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla. Gross CO2 flux showed the significance positive correlation relationship with plant biomass. Gross CO2 flux and CH4 emission were also correlated with soil temperature(0-5cm) and water temperature. However, the highest CH4 emission rate lagged behind the highest soil temperature in the root area during plant growth period. The data also indicated that wet and warm conditions during the early spring led to greater value of CH4 emission flux. Inundation is the necessary condition for the existence of methane bacteria, but there is no significant positive correlation between the inundation depth and CH4 emission rate in this region. Within the same growing season and under the same inundation condition, the variations of CH4 emission rate could be markedly different.

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    ECO-ENVIRONMENT CHANGE AND SOIL EROSION PROCESS IN THE RECLAIMED FORESTLAND OF THE LOESS PLATEAU
    ZHA Xiao-chun, TANG Ke-li
    2003 (3):  232-237. 
    摘要 ( 787 )   PDF(201KB) ( 1064 )  

    Serious soil erosion has made the eco-environment fragile in the Loess Plateau. Based on the 10-year data observed from 1989 to 1998 in the Ziwuling Survey Station in loess hilly region, the eco-environment change and soil erosion process in reclaimed forestland were studied in this paper. The results showed that the intensity of man-made soil erosion caused by forestland reclamation was 1000 times more than that of the natural erosion. From the analysis of soil physical and mechanical properties, in the 10th year after forestland was reclaimed, the clay content and physical clay content decreased 2.74 percentage point and 3.01 percentage point respectively, the >0.25mm waterstable aggregate content decreased 31.59 percentage point, the soil bulk density increased and soil shear strength decreased, all of which were easier to cause soil erosion. The correlation analysis showed that >0.25mm waterstable aggregate content was the key factor affecting soil erosion, and the secondary factors were soil coarse grain and soil shear strength. The relation between the >0.25mm waterstable aggregate content, the soil sheer strength and the soil erosion intensity were analyzed, which showed that the first year and the seventh erosion year were the turn years of the soil erosion intensity after the forestland was reclaimed, revealed that the change of eco-environment was the main cause to accelerate soil erosion, and the worse environment caused soil erosion to be serious rapidly.

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    QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF SOIL EROSION AND ELEMENT RUN-OFF IN THE SONGHUA LAKE VALLEY
    WANG Ning, ZHU Yan-ming, WANG Hui-lian
    2003 (3):  238-241. 
    摘要 ( 725 )   PDF(625KB) ( 1104 )  

    Under the condition of different precipitation intensities, different gradients, different land-use types and different vegetation coverage, the soil erosion and transference of element(or pollutant) are studied by simulating and analyzing the surface run-off of experimental plots in the catchment area of Songhua Lake, with an area of about 43 370.8km2. And the influencing factors that produce the spatial difference are analyzed and assessed. It is put forward that the irrational land utilization is the reason of soil erosion and pollutant run-off. The gradient of farmland, the growing season of vegetation and the vegetation coverage are chiefly restricting factors that lead to the soil erosion and pollutant run-off. This study can provide the fundamental data for comprehensive planning and harnessing of the non-point source pollution in the valley.

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    DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN
    LIU Ru-hai, WANG Qi-chao, WANG Yan, ZHANG Lei, SHAO Zhi-guo
    2003 (3):  242-246. 
    摘要 ( 980 )   PDF(226KB) ( 1187 )  

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants:moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mercury concentration was in the order of:dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4:μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8:μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wetland.

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    FOREST LANDSCAPE PATTERN DYNAMICS OF LUONINGCOUNTY IN HENAN PROVINCE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES
    DING Sheng-yan, QIAN Le-xiang, CAO Xin-xiang, LI Shuang, LI Hao-min
    2003 (3):  247-253. 
    摘要 ( 1025 )   PDF(1062KB) ( 1633 )  

    With the help of ARC/INFOR and ERDAS software, based on the information from forest resources distribution maps and TM images, four indices were chosen to analyze spatial pattern changes of forest landscape of Luoning County, Henan Province from 1983 to 1999. The results showed that:1) The number and total area of patches were rapidly increased with time changes. The fragmentation degree of the landscape was increasing greatly. 2) The area of some forest patch types, especially shrub forest, economic forest, Populus spp. forest, Quercus spp. forest, sparse forest, deserted grassland etc. had been greatly changed. 3) The fragemation degree of each forest patch type became greater from 1983 to 1999. 4) The transition probabilities of deserted forest, economic forest, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, Populus spp. forest exceed 85%, Robinia pseuoacacia forest, deserted grassland, 65% and Quercus spp. forest, non-forest, shrub forest had smaller ones, which were 26.5%, 29.1% and 45.3%, respectively. The main transition trends of various patches were non-forest and Quercus spp. forest. During the course of transition, the types that 50% of area was remained were Quercus spp. forest, non-forest and shrub forest. According to above analyses, the main driving forces, such as the management policies, market economy factors and influences of human activities etc. were brought out.

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    STUDY ON SPATIAL LANDSCAPE PATTERN OF YANTAI CITY BASED ON RS AND GIS
    WU Quan-yuan
    2003 (3):  254-258. 
    摘要 ( 1036 )   PDF(445KB) ( 1315 )  

    Influenced by artificial factors, landscape pattern of Yantai City, Shandong Province changes continuously. Revealing its landscape pattern and its changing process has a practical significance for the urban development and layout. Zhifu District, Development Zone, Laishan District and Fushan District in Yantai City were selected to study the landscape pattern. Remote sensing technology was used to obtain landscape information of different periods. Under the support of Geographic Information System(GIS), the spatial landscape pattern of Yantai City was analyzed and simulated by using various special quantitative analysis models. The analysis shows that built-up area lies in the center of Yantai City, the outside is vegetable land, irrigated land, dry land, garden land and woodland.

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    FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION MODES ALONG THE CHANGJIANG RIVER MAIN LINE AND ITS DELTA AREA
    ZHANG Shi-yu, XIAO Han-liang
    2003 (3):  259-261. 
    摘要 ( 774 )   PDF(117KB) ( 1292 )  

    The Changjiang River(Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in China. Rail, road and water transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Chang-jiang River main line and its delta area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifically in order to organize container transportation efficiently in this area and make decision for integral plan and construction of transportation system in this area. This paper outlines application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to appraise different modes of typical direction of containers. Twelve assessment indexes were decided. Membership functions were formulated. Evaluation results indicated that road transportation was optimal mode in the Changjiang River delta area, however water transportation was the primary way in the Changjiang River main line.

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    SIMULATION AND PREDICTION OF DEBRIS FLOW USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
    WANG Xie-kang, HUANG Er, CUI Peng
    2003 (3):  262-266. 
    摘要 ( 791 )   PDF(246KB) ( 1149 )  

    Debris flow is one of the most destructive phenomena of natural hazards. Recently, major natural hazard, claiming human lives and assets, is due to debris flow in the world. Several practical methods for forecasting debris flow have been proposed, however, the accuracy of these methods is not high enough for practical use because of the stochastic and non-linear characteristics of debris flow. Artificial neural network has proven to be feasible and useful in developing models for nonlinear systems. On the other hand, predicting the future behavior based on a time series of collected historical data is also an important tool in many scientific applications. In this study we present a three-layer feed-forward neural network model to forecast surge of debris flow according to the time series data collected in the Jiangjia Ravine, situated in north part of Yunnan Province of China. The simulation and prediction of debris flow using the proposed approach shows this model is feasible, however, further studies are needed.

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    APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY TO POPULATION ESTIMATION
    ZHANG Bao-guang
    2003 (3):  267-271. 
    摘要 ( 1063 )   PDF(160KB) ( 2492 )  

    This paper attempts to explore a new avenue of urban small-regional population estimation by remote sensing technology, creatively and comprehensively for the first time using a residence count method, area(density) method and model method, incorporating the application experience of American scholars in the light of the state of our country. Firstly, the author proposes theoretical basis for population estimation by remote sensing, on the basis of analysing and evaluating the history and state quo of application of methods of population estimation by remote sensing. Secondly, two original types of mathematical models of population estimation are developed on the basis of remote sensing data, taking Tianjin City as an example. By both of the mathematical models the regional population may be estimated from remote sensing variable values with high accuracy. The number of the independent variables in the latter model is somewhat smaller and the collection of remote sensing data is somewhat easier, but the deviation is a little larger. Finally, some viewpoints on the principled problems about the practical application of remote sensing to population estimation are put forward.

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    APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY OF WETLANDS IN THE JIANGHAN PLAIN
    WANG Xue-lei, NING Long-mei, HU Wang-bin
    2003 (3):  272-276. 
    摘要 ( 795 )   PDF(294KB) ( 1526 )  

    Wetlands in the Jianghan Plain are important components of wetland types in lake area in the middle and lower reaches the Changjiang(Yangtze) River and they fulfill many uses and functions related to hydrology, waste assimilation, ecosystem productivity and biodiversity. Owing to natural factors and human activities, especially excessive reclamation from lakes, the shrinking process of the lakes has been accelerated. Wetland ecosystem has shown the characteristics of vulnerability. According to the analysis of wetland ecological function in the Jianghan Plain, this paper presented an index system related to productivity, stability and environmental capacity. By using the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, we computed the values of the relative weights of the indexes, and evaluated the vulnerability level of the wetland ecosystem by the method of multi-indexes. The case study showed that the fragile extent of wetland ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain is 5.6. This means that the wetland ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain is laid to the state of middle vulnerability. Therefore, the wetland conservation and eco-rehabilitation in the Jianghan Plain should be paid attention to.

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    ASSESSMENT OF INDIRECT USE VALUES OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY IN YAOLUOPING NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE, ANHUI PROVINCE
    XU Hui, QIAN Yi, ZHENG Lin, PENG Bu-zhuo
    2003 (3):  277-283. 
    摘要 ( 815 )   PDF(250KB) ( 1503 )  

    Direct use values of forest ecosystem have been recognized apparently due to its easy and convenient assessment, while indirect use values are usually neglected because they are not easy to be recognized by the public. For a nature reserve with forest ecosystem, the most important economic values are the indirect use values, which provide human beings and other living things with beneficial services through ecological processes and functions. In this case study, a quantifying framework to estimate the annual indirect use values of forest ecosystem has been established in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve based on alternative cost method and opportunity cost method. The ecological functions assessed in the study relate to six aspects:soil protection, water conservation, CO2 fixation, nutrient cycling, pollutant decomposition and disease and pest control. These ecological functions provide an economic value of 86.1×106 yuan(RMB) per year(US$10.37×106), which is 25 times higher than the opportunity cost for regular timber production. This study can contribute to the monetary assessment of indirect use values of forest biodiversity and to the conservation and sustainable use of nature reserves.

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    STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA
    ZHOU Qi, LI Jing-yi, ZHAO Jing-bo
    2003 (3):  284-288. 
    摘要 ( 962 )   PDF(277KB) ( 1372 )  

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environmental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terribly weak. This paper intends to understand the personality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows:1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the foundations of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differences of public perception of disaster appear as follows:female disaster perception is stronger than male;the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60, 60 year old or over in turns;the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational characteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns;the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in turns;the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

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