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    2003年, 第13卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2003-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    STUDY ON DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SHIPPING CENTERS AND TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS IN THE YELLOW SEA RIM
    JIN Feng-jun
    2003 (2):  97-103. 
    摘要 ( 727 )   PDF(714KB) ( 689 )  

    It is very important to establish cooperative mechanism to guarantee all members to develop their economies in the Yellow Sea Rim. In this paper, the development strategies of shipping centers and transportation network are discussed based on economic globalization tendency. The results argue that a united transportation network should be built in order to promote the economic competition of Northeast Asia in the world. As a key component of the economic cooperation, a hierarchical shipping centers network should be established with Hong Kong, Shanghai, Pusan, Kobe, and Tokyo as cores. The authorities of China, Japan, R. O. Korea and D. P. R. Korea should make more efforts to build a set of cooperation institutions based on raising the transportation efficiency.

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    STUDY ON BEIJING'S EMERGING MOBILE COMMUNICATION INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER AND ITS POLICY IMPLICATIONS
    SUN Tie-shan, LI Guo-ping, LU Ming-hua
    2003 (2):  104-111. 
    摘要 ( 902 )   PDF(1243KB) ( 864 )  

    This paper is a preliminary and illustrative case study of Beijing's emerging mobile communication industrial (MCI) cluster, which helps understand the cluster by qualitative analysis and description. Beijing's MCI cluster is emerging as far as the competence of the industry and its spatial concentration are concerned, although it is not the type of the cluster described by PORTER due to the low competence of indigenous firms. The formation of the cluster can be explained by means of the factor and demand conditions of Beijing. However, it is mostly determined by the multinationals that promote the growth of the industry and the formation of the cluster, and by the government that also plays a key role in many ways. As a matter of fact, the interaction between the multination als and the local government is the key to understanding the formation of the cluster. All in all, Beijing's emerging MCI cluster is a value-chain, geographically concentrated but non-localized cluster, which is highly dominated by the multinationals and the local government. Its special characteristics bear some policy implications as to the change of the roles of the local government and the localization of multinationals, etc.

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    GULLY-SPECIFIC DEBRIS FLOW HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN CHINA
    LIU Xi-lin
    2003 (2):  112-118. 
    摘要 ( 631 )   PDF(574KB) ( 963 )  

    Techniques of gully-specific debris flow hazard assessment developed in four periods since the end of the 1980s have been discussed in the present paper. The improvement for the empirical assessment method is the sectionalized function transformation for the factor value, rather than the classified logical transformation. The theoretical equation of the gully-specific debris flow haz ard is expressed as the definite integral of an exponential function and its numerical solution is expressed by the Poisson Limit Equation. Current methods for assessment of debris flow hazard in China are still valid and practical. The fur ther work should be put on the study of the reliability (or uncertainty) of the techniques. For the future, we should give a high priority to the relationship between debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence, make more developments of prediction model on debris flow magnitude, so as to finally reach the goal of assessing the hazard of debris flow by theoretical model, and realize both actuality assessment and prediction appraisal of debris flow.

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    LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS IN NORTHEAST CHINA SINCE 1900
    ZHANG Bai, CUI Hai-shan, YU Lei, HE Yan-fen
    2003 (2):  119-123. 
    摘要 ( 1137 )   PDF(511KB) ( 1384 )  

    Northeast China is an important agricultural region in China. The Northeast Plain is the largest plain in the country and one of the three famous black soil zones in the world. Despite of fertility of the soil, however, large-scale agricultural development mainly took place since 1900.The land exploitation and utilization has been fast and intensive in this region since then and chan ge in the land-cover process has been remarkable. Both national and internation al researchers on land use and land cover are paying more attention to these pro cesses in this region and their implication for local ecological environment. This article discusses the land reclamation processes and their main driving forces in Northeast China since 1900.According to the research, the 20th century was the most important period for land reclamation in Northeast China. In these years the rate, intensity and quantity of land reclamation have been staggering, and more than 100000km2 of land was converted into farmland. This magnitude of land reclamation inland is unique in the world. Research on the land reclamation of Northeast China can provide some data on the effect of human activity on envir onment. As in many other places in the world, the primary driving force of recla mation in Northeast China was the increasing pressure of population. In the 20th century the population increased from 10×106 to 110×106 in Northeast China an d from 400×106 to 1.3×109 in China. Population pressure is thus the most impor tant driving force for land reclamation.

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    PRESSURE OF WATER SHORTAGE ON AGRICULTURE IN ARID REGION OF CHINA
    LI Xin
    2003 (2):  124-129. 
    摘要 ( 935 )   PDF(477KB) ( 1250 )  

    The arid areas in China are mainly located in North China and Northwest China. The North China is the main region for food production. There is 31. 19%of the total farmland and 26.01%of the total population, but only 6.14%of the available water resources of China. Groundwater is over pumped (6.53×109m3 every year) in the regions of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, so water supply could not meet the water demand there. The distribution of water in Northwest China is uneven, some inland rivers and lakes are dried up, and desertification has expanded since river water in the upper and middle reaches is diverted for irrigation. Up to 2050, population will be up to 1.6×109 in China, and industry will be developed fast, therefore 50% of the water supply will be used by indus try and resident, and water for agriculture will be decreased year by year. In the coming 50 years, water demand for agriculture will be increased by 5.6×109m3 in the Huanghe (Yellow) River valley, and by 1.7×109m3 in the Northwest China. It will be impossible for the Huanghe River to meet the water demand, because it always dried up in the cold half year since 1984. To avoid water shortage of a griculture in the arid regions, it is necessary to divert water from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River in the south of China, and to use water efficiently. It is the best way to use drip irrigation in agriculture, recycle water in industry and resident use, and control water pollution. Otherwise water shortage in the arid regions will restrict the development of agriculture in China.

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    DISASTER ANALYSIS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF LAND SUBSIDENCE CAUSED BY COAL CUTTING IN CHINA
    SHI Tong-guang, JIANG Lu-guang, LI Yue, YANG Yong-liang
    2003 (2):  130-133. 
    摘要 ( 706 )   PDF(350KB) ( 1013 )  

    In recent years, many coal-producing countries have paid great attention to the land subsidence caused by coal cutting. In China, because of the dense population in coalfield areas, the land subsidence hazard is more serious. A fter a brief analysis on the mechanism of land subsidence, this paper gives a comprehensive and systematical account on all kinds of hazards caused by the land subsidence in China. The study shows that land subsidence has endangered land, buildings, traffic and communication lines, dykes and dams. It also causes damage to ecological and social environment. In order to lessen the hazard of land sub sidence, preventive measures should be taken to reduce the collapse amount, such as extraction with stowing, banded mining system, succession and coordination mining system, or high-pressure mudflow between rock strata. Measures of reinfor cing or moving certain buildings should also be taken to reduce the destructive degree. In order to harness the subsidence land and bring them under control for farming, measures should be taken such as filling with spoil or fine breeze, excavating the deeper and covering the shallower land.

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    WISE EXPLOITATION OF NEWLY GROWING LAND RESOURCES—An Assessment on Land-use Change of Chongming Island Using GIS
    ZHAO Bin, LI Bo, MA Zhi-jun, CHEN Jia-kuan, NAKAGOSHI Nobukazu
    2003 (2):  134-141. 
    摘要 ( 827 )   PDF(1503KB) ( 983 )  

    Chongming Island, the third largest island in China and the largest alluvial island in the world, is situated in the north of Shanghai Municipality at the mouth of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Along the fertile and prosperous sea coast there are a total area of over 120×103ha, with a population of 735000, accruing some 500ha of new tidal land resources come from silt, sand and mud carried by the Changjiang River every year, extending about 140m per year. This dynamic process of alluvial growth has run for some 1500 years. Mudflat on Chon gming Island at the mouth of the Changjiang River is a resting ground for migratory birds and host more than a hundred species, including rare cranes and geese. But the local people keep reclaiming the tidal land for economic development. Obviously, it is crucial to have a well-concerted plan for future exploitation. In this study, we attempted to investigate the status changes of land use and wild life habitats on Chongming Island in recent 10 years, and then analyzed different human activities and their effects on wild life habitats using satellite im age data (1990, 1997 and 2000) as well as field survey. Based on the analysis, this study explored the relationships between island growth and land use/cover change (LUCC), predicted what the habitat would be like in the future and tried to find more effective use of this new growing resource. At last, this study provi ded some preliminary management plans for Chongming Island that will coordinate the development of local economies and the conservation of wild life and their habitats.

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    SOIL EROSION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT IN YIXING TEA PLANTATION OF JIANGSU PROVINCE
    ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Hong, PENG Bu-zhuo, YANG Hao
    2003 (2):  142-148. 
    摘要 ( 788 )   PDF(598KB) ( 852 )  

    Soil erosion on sloping field has led to a lot of environmental problems. In order to reveal the seriousness of the damage of soil erosion on sloping fields 137Cs tracer method was used to estimate soil erosion rate. 137Cs refer ence inventory of 2200Bq/m2 in Yixing, southern Jiangsu Province, was estimated and a model for estimating erosion of cultivated soil was established in order to avoid overestimating soil erosion rates. Then based on the soil erosion rates and measured soil physical and chemical properties, direct and indirect impacts of soil erosion on environment were further discussed. Direct impacts of erosion on environment included on-site and off-site impacts. The on-site impacts were that soil layer became thin, soil structure was deteriorated and soil nutrients decreased. The off-site impacts were that water bodies were polluted. The in direct impacts of soil erosion on environment were the increase of fertilizer application and energy consumption, and change of adaptability of land uses. Although erosion intensity was not serious in the study area, its environmental impacts should not be ignored because of great soil nutrient loss and coarseness of soil particles.

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    PREDICTION OF SEDIMENT REDUCING BENEFIT UNDER DIFFERENT RAINFALL COND ITIONS AND CONTROL DEGREES ON THE LOESS PLATEAU
    JIAO Ju-ying, WANG Wan-zhong
    2003 (2):  149-156. 
    摘要 ( 851 )   PDF(675KB) ( 859 )  

    Based on the distribution of hydrological stations and zoning of types of soil erosion, the Loess Plateau (310×103km2) is divided into 292 erosionunits. And taking the erosion modulus>5000t/km2 as a criterion, the emphasis control area (149×103km2) of the Loess Plateau is demarked, and is divided into 10 control regions. The controllable area and the location of control measures are conformed. Level terraces are mainly collocated on the 3°-15°slopes, woodla nd and grassland are collocated on the>15°slopes, and the proportion of woodland to grassland is 8:2 in the forest belt, 5:5 in the forest steppe belt, and 2:8 in the steppebelt. The 9000 combinations of soil-water conservation measures in different rainfall conditions are obtained by the permutation and combination method, according to the 9 rainfall frequencies and the controllable areas of level terrace, woodland and grassland at 10% of control progress rate. The quality standards of level terrace, woodland and grassland are ascertained. The evaluation indexes of soil-water conservation benefits of level terrace, woodland and grassland are established respectively in the condition that rainfall index is higher than that of erosive index of sloping field. Based on the results above, the sediment reducing benefit and soil erosion modulus in the different rain fall conditions and control degrees are analyzed, which could provide a decision-making basis for soil-water loss control on the Loess Plateau.

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    SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN YALU RIVER ESTUARY
    GAO Jian-hua, GAO Shu, CHENG Yan, DONG Li-xian, ZHANG Jing
    2003 (2):  157-163. 
    摘要 ( 762 )   PDF(575KB) ( 1153 )  

    Tidal cycle measurements of tidal currents, salinity and water tempe rature, and suspended sediment concentrations were measured at four stations, to gether with surveys along two profiles short core collection within the Yalu River estuary. Grain size analysis of the three core sediment showed that:1) the sediment from B1 to B3 became finer, worse sorting and positively skewed;2) the diversification of matter origin became more and more evident from east to west;3) the sediments over the region were of the same origin, as indicated by their similar colors and grain sizes. The data indicated that stratification occurred in the flood season, from upstream to downstream, and a salt wedge was formed. The water column was well mixed, but the longitudinal gradient of the salinity was larger on spring tide. The results also showed that the dominating mechanism of suspended sediment transport in the Yalu River estuary was T1, T2, T3 and T5. The non-tidal steady advection transport was restricted by the net transport of suspended sediment induced by mass Stoked drift directed to landwards, then the net sediment transport rate were decreased and the turbidity maxima was also f avored to forming and extending.

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    ANALYSIS OF HABITAT PATTERN CHANGE OF RED-CROWNED CRANES IN THE LIAO HE DELTA USING SPATIAL DIVERSITY INDEX
    WANG Ling, LI Xiu-zhen, HU Yuan-man, GUO Du-fa
    2003 (2):  164-170. 
    摘要 ( 671 )   PDF(1249KB) ( 1226 )  

    Habitat pattern change of red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Liaohe Delta between 1988 and 1998 was analyzed with the help of Spatial Dive rsity Index based on remote sensing data and field investigation. The result showed that the influence from human activities on the wetland habitat of red-crow ned cranes was prominent with the development of oil and agricultural exploitati on, and the habitat pattern of red-crowned cranes had been obviously changed by the human disturbance during the ten years. The areas with high Spatial Diversity values (SD≥0.65) and that with mid-high values (0.5≤SD<0.65), which const ituted the main part of suitable habitat of red-crowned cranes, had reduced to 9142ha and 5576ha respectively, with the shrinking of natural land cover, such as reed and Suaeda community. The habitat pattern became more fragmented, which was caused by roads and wells during oil exploration. It was indicated that the suitability and quality of habitat for red-crowned cranes in the Liaohe Delta were degraded in the last decade. The results also showed that diversity index could reflect the habitat suitability of red-crowned cranes quantitatively and des cribe the spatial pattern of the habitat explicitly. This study will provide a scientific basis for habitat protection of red-crowned cranes and other rare species in wetlands.

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    SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE-ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN, NORTHEAST CHINA
    WANG Zhi-chun, LI Qu-sheng, LI Xiu-jun, SONG Chang-chun, ZHANG Guang-xin
    2003 (2):  171-174. 
    摘要 ( 737 )   PDF(325KB) ( 1073 )  

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. But the sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higher evaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration of the soil, and insufficiency and low availability innutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of fav orable conditions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources, plenty of manure produced by livestock, and soon. At the same time, scientific management and measurem ents have been employed;rational irrigation and drainage system has been establ ished;reclamation, amendment and fertilization of soil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agricul ture. Great progress has been made during 1996-2000.

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    IMPACT OF OIL FIELD EXPLOITATION ON ECO-ENVIRONMENT OF THE DAQING LAKES
    YU Shao-peng, LU Jin-fu, SUN Guang-you
    2003 (2):  175-181. 
    摘要 ( 1165 )   PDF(551KB) ( 1601 )  

    The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through historical comparison of the environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oil field exploitation on the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploitation and utilization of groundwater, dropped crude oil and petrochemical wastewater on the lakes water body. The analys is shows that oil field exploitation caused serious pollution to soil in the lakes area and deterioration of the eco-environment. The impact became more evident with passage of time, and the intensity varied with areas, getting more serious from west to east, which meant that the eastern part of the lakes were influen ced much more seriously by the human activities. To improve the eco-environment of the Daqing lakes and make them sustainable utilization, the effective protection measures should be taken.

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    ANALYSIS ON THE PRESENT SITUATION AND CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF VACANT COMMERCIAL HOUSING IN GUANGZHOU URBAN DISTRICT
    MA Yao-dong, ZHOU Chun-shan, FANG Yuan-ping
    2003 (2):  182-189. 
    摘要 ( 643 )   PDF(665KB) ( 831 )  

    According to the on-the-spot sampling investigation, this paper an alyzes the conditions of different districts, different locales and different types of the vacant commercial housing as well as the contributing factors, which was completed in recent three years in Guangzhou urban district. It is found that vacant ratio of samples in Guangzhou accounted for 20.94%, which is relatively high. The authors argue that real estate industry of Guangzhou has made rapid progress, at the same time, people should not overlook the vacant commercial housing. It will benefit the sustainable development of the real estate industry of Guangzhou to carry out effective measures and actively to make use of present vacant housing.

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    SPECULATION ON DEVELOPING TOUR RESOURCES OF THE TOURNAMENT ATHLETICS IN HARBIN CITY
    MENG Li-li
    2003 (2):  190-192. 
    摘要 ( 641 )   PDF(290KB) ( 807 )  

    The exploitation and utilization of the tourresources of tournament athletics, including skiling, boat sailing, archery, ice engraving, snow engraving, has become a new trend of the development of Chinese tourism. Due to the un ique cold climate and superior geographic location, Harbin is a promising city for developing tour resources of tournament athletics. Based on the analysis of the superiority and peculiarity of Harbin, the speculation on development of tour resources of tournament athletics in Harbin is proposed as follows:1) Harbin should develop its special tour resources of tournament athletics associated with needs of market;2) Harbin should take the advantages of rich resources and develop ice and snow entertainment in winter and travel for sight-seeing and spending summer;3) the adjustment of the layout of ice and snow resources should be based on the idea of taking Harbin as the center and all-side opening at the large scale in the way of radiation;4) tourism should be developed by the combine defforts of various departments to make feasible plan, and the organizers should pay much attention to ensuring the safety of tourists.

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