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    2002年, 第12卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2002-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF WATER RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION IN CHINA
    DENG Wei, BAI Jun-hong, YAN Min-hua
    2002 (4):  288-293. 
    摘要 ( 760 )   PDF(465KB) ( 739 )  

    According to the theory of sustainable development,the current situation and existent problems of the exploitation of water resources were analyze d in this paper.The results show that the contradiction between supply an d demand of water resources is continually aggravating,water pollution is incre asingly serious,water environment is worse,the overextraction area of the underground water is expanding and water crisis stands out gradually,so it is imp erative under the situation to actualize the susta inable exploitation strategies of water resources.It is necessary for s ustainable utilizing water resources to introduce the mod el of sustainable utilization of water resourcesthe model of wealth transferring between the generations of water resou rces,establish watersaving socie ty system and water market,form technology systems,management systems and evaluation systems for many sorts of water resources,improve the utilization ratio of water resources,transform waste water in to resources and maintain and restore the water space of water environmen t.

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    FORECAST ON FUTURE LEVEL OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA
    WANG Dian-hai, LI Zhen-fu
    2002 (4):  294-298. 
    摘要 ( 572 )   PDF(1890KB) ( 692 )  

    China is a country in the period of economy takeoff.We cannot use the common method to forecast its future economy level.This paper establishes an economic level forecast model of the countries whose economy is in the take off bacause of the stimulation of model country.The enlightenment of the model is from physics.If there are two substances,A and B,and a medium between them,according to physics,when substance A is hotter than B,B's temperature will inevitably rise and close to that of A.Thus,this system tends to be a s tate of balance.Three factors affec t heat conducation between substance A and B.They a re the difference of temperature between two substances.the conductivity of meduimand the characteristics of th emselves.The model is testified thr ough two examples.And then we foreca st the economic development level of China in long term.This paper raises a model to solve the problem of research approaches.However,sice there are some limitations on data source,problems will appear.For example,in certain years,our forecast results do not suit the real situ ation.But in the long term,the tendecy is accurate.Then this model can be amended in accordance with different situations.

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    STUDY ON THE SPATIAL PATTERNS OF LAND—USE CHANGE AND ANALYSES OF DRIVING FORCES IN NORTHEASTERN CHINA DURING 1990-2000
    LIU Ji-yuan, DENG Xiang-zheng, LIU Ming-liang, ZHANG Shu-wen
    2002 (4):  299-308. 
    摘要 ( 1675 )   PDF(2659KB) ( 1029 )  

    Landuse change is an important aspect of global environment change.It is,in a sense,the direct result of human activities influencing our physical environment.Supported by the dynamic serving system of nation al resources,including both the environment data base and GIS technology,this paper a nalyzed the landuse change in north eastern China in the pastten years(19902000).It divides northeastern China into five landuse zones based on the dynamic degree(DD)of landuse:woodland /grasslandarable land conversion zone,dry landpaddy field conversion zone,urban expansion zone,interlocked zone of farming and pasturing,and reclamation and abandoned zone.In the pastten years,landuse change of northeastern China can be generalized as follows:increase of cropland area was obvious,paddy field and dry land increased by 74.9and 276.0 thousand ha respectively;urban area expanded rapidly,area of town and rural residence increased by 76.8 thousand ha;area of forest and grassland decreased sharply with the amount of 1399.0 and 1521.3 thousand ha respectively;area of water body and unused land increased by 148.4and 513.9 thousand ha respectively.Besides a comprehensive analysis of the spatial patterns of land use,this paper also discusses the driving forces in each landuse dynamic zones.The study shows that some key biophysical factors affect conspicuously the conversion of different landuse types.In this paper,the relationships between landuse conversion and DEM,accumulated temperature(≥10℃)and precipitation were analysed and represented.We conclude that the landuse changes in northeast China resulted from the change of macrosocial and economic factors and local physical elements.Rapid population growth and management changes,in some sense,can explain the shaping of woodland /grassland cropland conve rsion zone.The conversion from dry land to paddy field in the dry landpaddy fie ld conversion zone,apart from the physical elements change promoting the expan sion of paddy field,results from two reasons:one is that the implementation of marketeconomy in China has given farme rs the right to decide what they plant and how they plant their crops,the other factor is originated partially from the change of dietary habit with the social and economic development.The con version from paddy field to dry land is caused prim arily by the shortfall of irrigation water,which in turn is caused by poor water allocation managed by local governments.The shaping of the reclamation and abandoned zone is partially due to the lack of environment protection consciousness among pioneer settlers.The reason for the conversion fromgrassland to cropl and is the relatively higher profits of farming than that of pasturing in the interlocked zone of farming and pasturing.In northeastern China,the rapid expansion of builtup areas results from two factors:the first is its small number of towns;the second comes from the huge potential for expansion of existing towns and cities.It is noticeable that urban expansion in the northeastern China is characterized by gentle top ographic relief and low populationd ensity.Physiognomy,transportation and economy exert great influences on the urban expansion.

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    THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA IN NEW TERM
    LU La-chang
    2002 (4):  309-314. 
    摘要 ( 776 )   PDF(582KB) ( 812 )  

    Since China opening to outside world,the economy in the Pearl(Zhujiang)River Delta(PRD)has been double digit growth.It has been known as one of mature fast growth areas in the world and become the model and hope of Chinese reformand opening to outside wo rld.The regional development in PRD is the outcome of polarization effects .The polarization effects actually are extension of international regional division and a combination of Hongkong's i nfluence and reform and opendoor policies on the mainland.Since the 1990s,driven by knowledgebased economy,the PRD has further adjusted the industrial structure a nd achieved good progress in upgradi ng industrial structure.Its high te chnology industry has developed quickly and the economic internationalization has deepened,meanwhile,the region is going th rough transformation and some new trends have begun to appear,which include:university towns springing up,industrial globalization and the construction of Hitech develop ment zones.The paper suggests that with the economic growth changing fromrelying on the low level production elements to relying on high level production ele ments,the regional policies in Guan gdong Province should develop correspondingly:1)make a plan to prohibite the blind con struction in innovative spatial con structions;2)make measures to attract the overseas talents to establish a pool of talen t;3)work out the favorable policies for absorbing larger capital;4)formulate the policy of attracting a cluster of industries to speed up the upgrade of industrial development.

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    BORDER PORT MANZHOULI: URBAN FUNCTION AND SPACE DEVELOPMENT
    ZHANG Ping-yu, MA Yan-ji, YU Zhen-han
    2002 (4):  315-320. 
    摘要 ( 607 )   PDF(463KB) ( 1251 )  

    Manzhouli is the largest land port city on the Sino-Russia border, transit cargo through the land port amounted to 5.95 million tons, transit tourists were 304500 in 2000. It stands at the joint place of China, Mongolia and Russia, faces to Siberia area of Russia, receives direct support fromthe Northeast China and Bohai Sea Rim Area, and possesses priorities in geographical location, land port infrastructure, water resources, coal resources, tourist resources andgreat potentiality in economic cooperation with Russia. The future urban function is a key port on the First Eurasia Continental Bridge. Manzhouli Port will keep its first place between China and Russia land transport, and it is forecasted that thetransit amount through Manzhouli Port will go up to 10 million tons in 2005 and 20 million tons in 2010. It will be constructed to be a trade center of the peripheral area extending to Russia and Mongolia, a key export-oriented processing industrial zone supported by industries such as export processing industries, export agriculture, trade services, technology trading and the other service industries. It keeps being a well-known touring city for trade, shopping, sightseeing, vocation,local food, recreation and cultural events. To build Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will improve city economic structure, and the main sectors are organic food processing, livestock products processing, garment and furniture industry. Moreover, Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will eventually be upgraded to be a border free trade zone.The city functional transition will inevitably affect urban spatial restructure and its expansion. The city space transformation will develop as such: one development axis of No. 301 highway paralleling with Bin-Zhou (Harbin-Manzhouli) railway which cuts through central part of Manzhouli City, and links Zhalainuoer District with central city; three urban unitsincluding central city, Zhalainuoer District and Manzhouli Interchange Trade Zone; cohesion with Aoerjin and Cuogangpastures; regional dual-nuclei structure of Hailaer City and Manhzouli City; and the Manzhouli-Zabaykalsk Free TradeZone.

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    STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL SPACE OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION—Taking Wuxi City as an Example
    XUE Dong-qian, ZHANG Xiao-jun
    2002 (4):  321-328. 
    摘要 ( 791 )   PDF(693KB) ( 907 )  

    From the angle of ecology, urban agglomeration presents relevant types of landscape structure, which include Patch, Corridor and Matrix. There are different landscape features and different problems in different developmentphases. This paper has put forward five basic conditions for security pattern of landscape ecology of urban agglomeration,described quantitatively the features for landscape ecology in Wuxi, and analyzed ecological background of spatial expansion and spatial organization of urban development in Wuxi. From the angle of ecological land use and non-ecological landuse, the paper has analyzed the features of land use and ecological distribution of land in the urban area. The spatial model of cities and towns in Wuxi is composed of one metropolis, two urban zones and three development axes. This thesishas planned preliminarily ecological protection network at four levels in the urban region according to four layers. At last,combining landscape ecology with urban space, a tentative security pattern of landscape ecology has been p1anned in Wuxi, namely Source-Buffer Zone and Metropolis, Radiating Routes and Expansion Direction of City, Strategic Point and Interaction between Cities and Towns, Inter-Source Linkage-Corridor of a Stable Landscape Structure.

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE DURING THE PAST 50 YEARS IN JILIN PROVINCE OF CHINA
    ZHAO Xin-yi, WAN Jun, WU Xiu-qin
    2002 (4):  329-332. 
    摘要 ( 766 )   PDF(1060KB) ( 715 )  

    Based on the monthly mean temperature, the changing processes and tendencies of temperature during1951-2000 in Jilin Province, which is in Northeast China, are analyzed. And the spatial characteristics of the changeare submitted. In the past 50 years the temperature of Jilin Province was increasing just like the other areas in the world.Since 1990, the increasing of temperature has been more obvious than that in the previous 40a. From the west to theeast, the province has larger temperature rising. According to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of temperature field,Jilin Province is divided into 3 regions and the degree of becoming warmer is different from region to region. During theperiod of 1951 to 2000, the annual temperature in Jilin Province has been rising, so has the temperature in winter andsummer. The average temperature in the 1990s was 0.5-2.0℃ higher than that in the 1950s. From the west to theeast, the increasing of temperature became smaller.

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    PRIMARY ANALYSIS ON GROUNDWATER, SOIL MOISTURE AND SALINITY IN FUKANG OASIS OF SOUTHERN JUNGGAR BASIN
    GU Feng-xue, ZHANG Yuan-dong, CHU Yu, SHI Qing-dong, PAN Xiao-ling
    2002 (4):  333-338. 
    摘要 ( 1375 )   PDF(455KB) ( 922 )  

    Soil salinity is the most important factor affecting vegetation distribution, and the secondary salinizationhas affected the development of oasis agriculture. In arid areas the spatial variation of soil moisture and salt content is marked-ly affected by groundwater, irrational irrigation in artificial oasis. By analyzing the soil moisture, salt content and groundwa-ter table in different areas of old oasis, new oasis and desert in Fukang Oasis, it is shown that topography and land useare main factors affecting the change of groundwater table, the redistribution of soil moisture and salt content. When undis-turbed by human, the groundwater table rises from mountain to belt of ground water spillage, the groundwater table risesmightily in plain because of the artificial irrigation, and the secondary salinization of soil is very serious. In oasis the ground-water table raises compared with that in the natural desert at the same latitude. In old oasis of upper reaches of river salthas not been concentrated too much in rhizosphere because this area is the belt of groundwater drainage, soil texture iscoarse, the groundwater table is very low, and the salt in soil is drained into the groundwater. The new oasis has beenthe areas of salt accumulation because of the artificial irrigation, the salt content in soil is higher than that in old oasis,so some cultivated fields here had to be thrown out because of the serious secondary salinization.

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    GIS-BASED ANALYSIS OF URBAN LAND-USE CHANGES—A Case Study of Haizhu District of Guangzhou City,China
    ZHANG Xin-chang, PAN Qiong, ZHAO Ling-ling, YE Shen-tao
    2002 (4):  339-345. 
    摘要 ( 1042 )   PDF(2517KB) ( 1311 )  

    This paper describes a GIS-based spatial analysis method that combines qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis to characterize land-use patterns and predict the trend of future land-use changes in Haizhu District of Guangzhou City, China. Spatial technique is introduced to manage land-use data and derive information of land-usechanges. Through the case study for the selected area, it is demonstrated that the method and technique introduced in thepaper can be effectively utilized for the analysis of urban land-use changes. Based upon this analysis, the paper also provides discussions and recommendation on urban land-use planning, urban planning and land management. Both land-use maps of Haizhu District of Guangzhou in 1995 and 199 and the remote sensing images of 1999 are utilized in the current research. It is convenient to get various statistic data and to combine attribute data with spatial data so as to analyzeland-use changes in a geographic context, which is especially suitable for the need of urban construction department, urban management department and urban planning department.

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    RESEARCH ON FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN TRAFFIC NETWORK STRUCTURE BASED ON GIS
    LI Jiang, WANG Xiao-yan, GUO Qing-sheng
    2002 (4):  346-349. 
    摘要 ( 1134 )   PDF(444KB) ( 1034 )  

    Traffic network is an importance aspect of researching controllable parameters of an urban spatial morphology. Based on GIS, traffic network structure complexity can be understood by using fractal geometry in which thelength-radius dimension describes change of network density, and ramification-radius dimension describes complexity andaccessibility of urban network. It is propitious to analyze urban traffic network and to understand dynamic change processof traffic network using expanding fractal-dimension quantification. Meanwhile the length-radius dimension and ramifica-tion-radius dimension could be regard as reference factor of quantitative describing urban traffic network.

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    FEASIBLE STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION SYSTEM FOR THE SPACE MONITORING OF MAJOR EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES IN TERRESTRIAL LAND
    BO Li-qun
    2002 (4):  350-353. 
    摘要 ( 608 )   PDF(299KB) ( 1081 )  

    With the rapid development of space technology, earth observation technology and sky observatory technology, they have played a more and more important part in monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes in the terrestrial land. In recent years, the related agencies have done the experiments and researches on monitoring and predicting ofearthquakes and volcanoes in the forewarning period by means of many approaches, such as satellite thermal infrared remote sensing(TIRS), Global Positioning System(GPS), differential interferometric synthesis aperture radar (D-INSAR),astronomical time-latitude residual anomaly, and Geographic Information Systems(GIS), etc. A quite large number of research foundation has been built in the fundamental theories and application methods. The experiments and researcheshave shown that these technology is efficient methods for high frequency crust movement. If the existed separate scientificforces and results are possibly assembled together to form a more complete integration monitoring system with the combination of space, sky observation, ground, deep geology and macro anomaly, it will come into a new stage of monitoring andpredicting of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

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    APPROACH OF DETERMINISTIC GEOMORPHOLOGIC INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPH TO HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES'SIMULATION IN KARST AREA
    WANG La-chun, ZHANG Jian-xin, ZHOU Yin-kang, CHEN Xiao-ling, DU Jin-kang
    2002 (4):  354-358. 
    摘要 ( 628 )   PDF(419KB) ( 1035 )  

    In order to analyze the condition of special landform and regularity of special hydrological movement inkarst area, the method of Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) has been used to divide the river networks into three grades in the research area and the karst hydrologic processes were simulated with Nash instantaneous unit hydrograph(NIUH). The combination of the GIUH and NIUH fully considers the moving path of water particles indrainage and the regional composition of runoff at the end of the drainage, resulting in a rational combination of probability of GIUH and NIUH and geomorphologic parameters which could reflect the complexity of the landform structure ofkarst drainage. The results showed that the combined method of GIUH and NIUH has clear physical concept and acceptable precision, which can be widely applied on hydrological studies of karst area.

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    A STUDY ON CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED ON RELATIONAL DATABASES AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATIONS OF CULTURE DIFFUSION
    LUO Ping, DU Qing-yun, HE Su-fang, LI Sen, MICHAEL Gallagher, NIU Hui-en
    2002 (4):  359-365. 
    摘要 ( 615 )   PDF(1421KB) ( 916 )  

    This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and nongeometrical characteristics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell's neighbour lies in the forms of not only spatial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on traditional ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowledge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.

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    ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR CONDUCTING COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF CADASTRAL SYSTEMS
    BELEJ Mirostaw, ZRÓBEK Sabina, LIANG Liu-ke
    2002 (4):  366-372. 
    摘要 ( 618 )   PDF(830KB) ( 1154 )  

    The conception of an efficient cadastral system is an important element in the development of each country. It is crucial for the efficient operation of the real estate market-the security and liberty of making transactions, registering a property, planning operations, the introduction of an ad valorem tax on property and more rational use of space. InEurope there are different types of cadastral systems, because the countries in Europe have different cultural backgrounds, different economical and social backgrounds. Through the centuries, many types of cadastral systems evolvedand their differences often depend upon local cultural heritage, physical geography, land use, technology, etc. Comparative analyses of cadastral systems have been the subjects of many publications and studies in world literature. It was assessed that the useful tools in conducting comparative analyses of various cadastral systems include the procedures of statistical inference. This paper presents the results of a project to compare the performance of ten cadastral systems internationally by creating appropriate integrated indicators of a cadastral system using statistical technique. Such indicators willmake it possible to compare different cadastral systems and present them hierarchically in relation to their quality, structure, as well as legal, organizational and technological solutions. From a good number of methods available, techniquesoriginating from two spheres of statistic inference were selected: distribution free methods and multivariate analysis methods. For analyses with the distribution free methods, FRIEDMAN's test (FRIENDMAN's non-parametric variance analysis) as well as KENDALL's test (KENDALL's compatibility ratio) were selected. For analyses with the multivariate analysis methods, factor analysis was selected.

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    ANALYSIS OF THE EXPANSION OF THE BUILT-UP AREA OF DALIAN CITY
    CHANG Li-ping, ZHANG Shu-wen
    2002 (4):  373-377. 
    摘要 ( 1319 )   PDF(549KB) ( 1094 )  

    With the astounding development and gradual improvement of remote sensing technology, as an advancedscience technology, it is used to provide multi-temporal, large scope real-time information for land-use dynamic change,and also is one of the best efficient methods for studying the earth resources and environment. Remote sensing image has its characteristics of ample information and reflecting the objective realities. The paper uses multi-temporal TM inages in 1986, 1996 and 2000, and relevant statistic data to analyze land-use changes of Dalian City in Liaoning Province of China over ten years by means of the correlation analysis method. The results have shown that two methods could conformably reflect the present land-use change. Urbanization is closely correlative to natural factors and economic development. Especially in recent 20 years, under the influence of the reform and open-up policy, Dalian, as a specific coast city, is becoming an international metropolis.

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    ECOLOGICAL SERIES OF SOIL ANIMALS IN DARLIDAI MOUNTAIN
    HOU Wei-ling, FAN Hong
    2002 (4):  378-382. 
    摘要 ( 798 )   PDF(449KB) ( 879 )  

    The ecological series of soil animals under the broad-leaved and pine mixed forest in Darlidai Mountainwas studied. Seven sample plots were selected according to different altitude gradients, which belong to different vegetation types. By investigating and analyzing soil animals in every sample plot it is found that there are 4 groups and 196individuals, which are involved in 3 phylums, 7 classes, 16 orders, respectively. The altitude is a key factor which affects ecological series of soil animals. Both the groups and individuals of soil animals increase with altitude increasingunder certain conditions, which contrastes with ordinary cases, resulting from special micro-climate in studied area. Thegroups and individuls of soil animals are the most under the broad-leaved and pine forest on the top of the mountain, andthe least under Picea-Abies forest in the foot of the mountain.

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