Please wait a minute...

当期目录

    2002年, 第12卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2002-06-20 上一期    下一期
    全选选: 隐藏/显示图片
    论文
    ECONOMIC EXCHANGES AND SECTORAL AND INTER-CITY COOPERATION IN NORTHEAST ASIA
    LI Wen yan, PANG Xiao-min
    2002 (2):  97-106. 
    摘要 ( 666 )   PDF(267KB) ( 1034 )  

    Northeast Asia with China, Japan and South Korea as the main components has drawn more and more attention worldwide. Many scholars have researched on the prospect of some alternatives of regional economic integration in Northeast Asia and/or Yellow Sea Rim as its core area. In this paper the authors start with an introduction of the major arguments embracing Yellow Sea Rim regionalism, and attempt to identify the dynamics challenging the proposed approaches of sub regionalism of Northeast Asia. The paper firstly gives a brief review on the update development of bilateral economic exchanges, mainly Sino Japanese and Sino South Korean trades and direct investments with related contemporary issues. When the changing pattern of economic interactions is analyzed, special concerns are given to the possibility to realize the supposed potential of regional economic cooperation mainly based on economic complementarity among the related regions of China, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan. The authors then made their major efforts on putting forward possible approaches of multilateral cooperation of three countries in the near future, that is, deepened cooperation in selected sectors of industry and transportation and coordinated development among major cities. The authors stress that the development of sub regional sectoral cooperation and the formation of interactive network of city regions via social and economic interactions at local level are significant to the future regional integrated development in Northeast Asia.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    ANALYSIS ON SPATIAL FEATURES OF LUCC BASED ON REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN CHINA
    GAO Zhi-qiang, DENG Xiang-zheng
    2002 (2):  107-113. 
    摘要 ( 911 )   PDF(1356KB) ( 1061 )  

    In view of the large quantities of areas, complex landform and dynamic change of resources and environment in China, China has already funded abundantly a series of macro remote sensing investigation projects in land use/cover change(LUCC) since 1990. Supported by the achievements of such projects, Chinese resources, environmental and remote sensing database (CRERS) was created. In this paper, we standardized the LUCC dataset of CRERS at scale of 1km, which facilitated the study of spatial features of LUCC in China. The analysis on the spatial features of LUCC and their causes of formation in China are based on the CRERS supported by the technologies of Geographic Information System (GIS). The whole research was based on the grade index of land use, ecological environmental index and index of population density. Based on the correlation analysis, we found that the special features of LUCC were closely related with those of ecological environment and population density, which resulted from that areas with better ecological environment and high production potential of land were easy and convenient for human being to live, which, furthermore, led to the aggravation of excessive exploitation of land resources there.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    SPATIALIZATION MODEL OF POPULATION BASED ON DATASET OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE IN CHINA
    ZHUANG Da-fang, LIU Ming-liang, DENG Xiang-zheng
    2002 (2):  114-119. 
    摘要 ( 754 )   PDF(946KB) ( 998 )  

    The spatialization of population of counties in China is significant. Firstly, we can gain the estimated values of population density adaptive to different kinds of regions. Secondly, we can integrate effectively population data with other data including natural resources, environment, society and economy, build 1km GRIDs of natural resources reserves per person, population density and other economic and environmental data, which are necessary to the national management and macro adjustment and control of natural resources and dynamic monitoring of population. In order to establish population information system serving national decision making, three steps ought to be followed:1) establishing complete geographical spatial data foundation infrastructure including the establishment of electric map of residence with high resolution using topographical map with large scale and high resolution satellite remote sensing data, the determination of attribute information of housing and office buildings, and creating complete set of attribute database and rapid data updating; 2) establishing complete census systems including improving the transformation efficiency from census data to digital database and strengthening the link of census database and geographical spatial database, meanwhile, the government should attach great importance to the establishment and integration of population migration database; 3) considering there is no GIS software specially serving the analysis and management of population data, a practical approach is to add special modules to present software system, which works as a bridge actualizing the digitization and spatialization of population geography research.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    SNOW COVER MONITORING BY REMOTE SENSING AND SNOWMELT RUNOFF CALCULATION IN THE UPPER HUANGHE RIVER BASIN
    LAN Yong-chao, WANG Jian, KANG Er-si, MA Quan-jie, ZHANG Ji-shi, CHEN Ren-sheng
    2002 (2):  120-125. 
    摘要 ( 912 )   PDF(564KB) ( 1141 )  

    The upper Huanghe(Yellow) River basin is situated in the northeast of the Qinghai Xizang(Tibet)Plateau of China. The melt water from the snow cover is main water supply for the rivers in the region during springtime and other arid regions of the northwestern China, and the hydrological conditions of the rivers are directly controlled by the snowmelt water in spring. So snowmelt runoff forecast has importance for hydropower, flood prevention and water resources utilization. The application of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques in snow cover monitoring and snowmelt runoff calculation in the upper Huanghe River basin are introduced amply in this paper. The key parameter-snow cover area can be computed by satellite images from multi platform, multi temporal and multi spectral. A cluster of snow cover data can be yielded by means of the classification filter method. Meanwhile GIS will provide relevant information for obtaining the parameters and also for zoning. According to the typical samples extracting snow covered mountainous region, the snowmelt runoff calculation models in the upper Huanghe River basin are presented and they are mentioned in detail also. The runoff snowmelt models based on the snow cover data from NOAA images and observation data of runoff, precipitation and air temperature have been satisfactorily used for predicting the inflow to the Longyangxia Reservoir , which is located at lower end of snow cover region and is one of the largest reservoirs on the upper Huanghe River, during late March to early June. The result shows that remote sensing techniques combined with the ground meteorological and hydrological observation is of great potential in snowmelt runoff forecasting for a large river basin. With the development of remote sensing technique and the progress of the interpretation method, the forecast accuracy of snowmelt runoff will be improved in the near future. Large scale extent and few stations are two objective reality situations in China, so they should be considered in simulation and forecast. Apart from dividing, the derivation of snow cover area from satellite images would decide the results of calculating runoff. Field investigation for selection of the learning samples of different snow patterns is basis for the classification.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    AN ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE CHANGES IN FUQING COUNTY OF CHINA USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY
    XU Han-qiu
    2002 (2):  126-135. 
    摘要 ( 1164 )   PDF(6715KB) ( 945 )  

    Fuqing County of southeast China has witnessed significant land use changes during the last decade. Re mote sensing technology using multitemporal Landsat TM images was used to characterize land use types and to monitor land use changes in the county. Two TM scenes from 1991 and 1996 were used to cover the county and a five-year time period. Digital image processing was carried out for the remotely sensed data to produce classified images. The images were further processed using GIS software to generate GIS databases so that the data could be further spatially analyzed taking the advantages of the software. Land use change areas were determined by using the change detection technique. The comparison of the two classified TM images using the above technologies reveals that during the five study years, a large area of arable lands in the county has been lost and deforestation has taken place largely because of the dramatic in crease in built-up land and orchard. The conclusive statistical information is useful to understand the processes, causes and impacts of the land use changes in the county. The major driving force to the land use changes in the county ap peared to be the rapid economic development. The decision makers of the county have to pay more attention to the land use changes for the county’s sustainable development.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    APPLYING PPE MODEL BASED ON RAGA TO CLASSIFY AND EVALUATE SOIL GRADE
    FU Qiang, LU Tie-guang, FU Hong
    2002 (2):  136-141. 
    摘要 ( 764 )   PDF(285KB) ( 879 )  

    The research of soil classification and soil grade evaluation is often based on fuzzy theory. So, the traditional method has an inevitable problem about weight matrix which given by some experts, and the final result can be influenced by artificial factors. The essentials of fuzzy synthetically judge is to handle the data of high dimension. That is to reducing the dimension number. The weight matrix in fuzzy theory is corresponding to low dimension projection value of each index. But we can't define whether the weight matrix given by experts is the best projection value or not. So, the authors apply a new technique of falling dimension named projection pursuit to soil study, through using the improved real coding based accelerating genetic algorithm to optimize the projection direction. Thus, it can transfer multi dimension data into one dimension data, through searching for the optimum projection direction to realize the soil classification and its grade evaluation. The method can avoid the artificial disturbance, and acquire preferably effect. Thus, the paper provides a new method to the research of soil classification and grade evaluation.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    ON FRACTAL MECHANISM OF COASTLINE -A Case Study of China
    ZHU Xiao-hua, WANG Jian
    2002 (2):  142-145. 
    摘要 ( 888 )   PDF(145KB) ( 1048 )  

    MANDELBROT enunciated the uncertainty of the length of a coastline in his paper"How long is the coastline of Britain?"published in "Science" in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. According to the fractal theory and conditions of fractal research of coastline,the controls of faults and biologic function on the fractal character of coastline are preliminarily discussed on the basis of GIS in this paper . Finally,some significant conclusions are drawn:1)the faults control the basic trends of coastlines of two study areas;2)the fractal dimension of coastline of Taiwan is smaller than that of Changle-Lufeng,because the faults of Taiwan more intensely control the trend and fractal dimension of the coastline;3)the larger the fractal dimension of the faults or the major faults,the more the controlling effect of them on the trend and fractal dimension of coastline; 4)the larger fractal dimension of the coastline of Changle-Lufeng indicates that the biologic function intensely shapes the coastline. In a word,the controls of faults and biologic function on the fractal character of coastline are discussed with a case study of China in this paper,it can be seen that faults and biologic function both have influence over the trend and fractal dimension of coastline,the fractal mechanism of coastline of two study areas may be so.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE FLOODING AND DROUGHT CALAMITY DURING PAST 1500 YEARS IN THE HAI'AN REGION, JIANGSU PROVINCE
    ZHANG Qiang, ZHU Cheng, CHENG Ji
    2002 (2):  146-151. 
    摘要 ( 734 )   PDF(747KB) ( 1095 )  

    Collection and arrangement of the historical records of climatic changes and environment evolution, especially in the aspect of calamities, are made on the history documents of past 1500 years about Hai'an region, Jiangsu Province. There existed two obvious flooding drought frequently occurring periods:one was from 1550 AD to 1850 AD and another was 1000 AD to 1200 AD. The period of 1550 AD to 1850 AD is interrupted by two relatively arid and cold climatic periods:one was from 1630 AD to 1700 AD and another was 1750 AD to 1820 AD. The main characteristic of the calamity periods is that they occurred by turns, and sometimes, both drought and flooding occurred in the same year. The instability of the climatic changes in the Little Ice Age may be the main reason of the frequently occurring flooding and drought in Hai'an region. Research results also show that the frequently occurring periods of flooding and drought is in close relationship with the solar activity, and therefore, occurrence of the flooding and drought may be in relation with the intensity of the solar activity. This hypothesis may need further study in the future.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS: CHINA'S URBAN GOVERNANCE
    WANG Hong, GU Chao-lin
    2002 (2):  152-156. 
    摘要 ( 711 )   PDF(128KB) ( 1427 )  

    China's urban reforms have brought social progress and development, but a comprehensive national system of social welfare (for example, unemployment insurance, pensions, medical care and public housing) for new migrants from rural areas is lacking. One of the most remarkable changes in Chinese cities in the last decade was a change in social "equality", with the rise of new poverty both in individual communities and some social groups in urban society. However, there is little social assistance and public infrastructure for the migrants. Governments or communities or individual should pay attention to the control of new urban poverty and new slums. This paper consider that it is necessary to launch a successful policy, which include mainly: 1) accommodating urban growth through low cost investment projects; 2) urban economy depends heavily on successful macroeconomic policy; 3) to broaden the three channels linking adjustment to the incidence of urban poverty; 4) to restructure urban economic based on the high or new technology; 5) to coordinate relationship between urban economic growth and environment management for sustainable development of Beijing's metropolitan fringe.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIYUN RESERVOIR AREA, CHINA
    SUN Yan-feng, GUO Huai-cheng, QU Guang-yi
    2002 (2):  157-165. 
    摘要 ( 1082 )   PDF(506KB) ( 1254 )  

    Miyun Reservoir was designated as the water source of Beijing City in 1982. Since that time, socio economic development in Miyun Area has been slowing due to the restriction of severe environmental standards. More and more attention from the public and government has been paid to the regional sustainable development. And an effective planning for the local society management system is urgently desired. In this study, a regional sustainable development system dynamics model, named MiyunSD, is developed for supporting this planning task. MiyunSD consists of dynamic simulation models that explicitly consider information feedback that governs interactions in the system. Such models are capable of simulating the system's behavior and predicting its developing situation of the future. For the study case, interactions among a number of system components within a time frame of fifteen years are examined dynamically. Three planning alternatives are carefully considered. The base run is based on an assumption that the existing pattern of human activities will prevail in the entire planning horizon, and the other alternatives are based on previous and present planning studies. The different alternatives will get different system's environmental and socio economic results. Through analyzing these dynamic results, local authorities may find an optimal way to realize the objectives that the regional environment will be well protected and at the same time the economy will be rapidly developed.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    EVALUATION OF GEOCHEMICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN DETERMINATION OF Mn IN SOILS USING A SEQUENTIAL CHEMICAL EXTRACTION
    DONG De-ming, FANG Chun-sheng, ZHAO Wen-jin, XIE Zhong-lei
    2002 (2):  166-170. 
    摘要 ( 657 )   PDF(138KB) ( 967 )  

    Sequential chemical extraction procedure has been widely used to partition particulate trace metals into various fractions and to describe the distribution and the statue of trace metals in geo environment. One sequential chemical extraction procedure was employed here to partition various fractions of Mn in soils. The experiment was designed with quality controlling concept in order to show sampling and analytical error. Experimental results obtained on duplicate analysis of all soil samples demonstrated that the precision was less than 10% (at 95% confidence level). The accuracy was estimated by comparing the accepted total concentration of Mn in standard reference materials (SRMs) with the measured sum of the individual fractions. The recovery of Mn from SRM1 and SRM2 was 94.1%and 98.4%, respectively. The detection limit, accuracy and precision of the sequential chemical extraction procedure were discussed in detailed. All the results suggest that the trueness of the analytical method is satisfactory.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    ON THE DIVISION OF NORTH BOUNDARY OF SUBTROPICAL ZONE ACCORDING TO THE COMPOSITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL HUMUS
    MA Jian-hua, ZHAO Qing-liang, HAN Jin-xian
    2002 (2):  171-175. 
    摘要 ( 761 )   PDF(237KB) ( 1074 )  

    In this paper predecessors'achievements about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south slope of Funiu Mountain are firstly summarized, and the cause why these viewpoints about the division are different also has been presented. Seven soil profiles at different heights above sea level are dug along the south slope of Funiu Mountain. Many compositions and properties of soil humus have been analyzed in laboratory. A comprehensive study has been made about the division according to the compositions and properties of soil humus with mathematical method. During the analysis process eight indexes have been used, such as altitude, organic carbon, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid (HA/FA), two extinction coefficients (E4,E6), and their ratio (E4/E6).The result indicates that the boundary is at about 1000 meters above sea level.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING IN THE CONTROL WATERSHED BY RESERVOIR OF ERLONG MOUNTAIN
    ZANG Shu-ying, YUAN Hui, NING Jing
    2002 (2):  176-181. 
    摘要 ( 756 )   PDF(860KB) ( 1072 )  

    Based on the theories of landscape ecology, landscape eco environment in the control watershed by reservoir of Erlong Mountain in Heilongjiang Province was analyzed and assessed by using GIS technique and statistical model of Principal Component Analysis and Spatial Cluster Analysis. It is found that 100.08km2(36%)of the total area is in the state of kilter,85.73km2(31%)of the total area is in the state of general,and 47.26km2(17%)and 15.48km2(16%)is in the relatively poor state and ideal state. According to landscape ecological structure,there are three landscape function areas being planned and designed. 1) Agricultural landscape function area: its developmental direction is tour agriculture and high benefit agriculture. 2) Eco environment protected function area:the direction of development and utilization of this region is to develop vigorously forest for soil and water conservation, and try to increase the rate of vegetation cover. 3) Forest landscape function area: rational cut and utilization of forest resources, space optimization disposal of category of forest, foster of forest and protection of wildwood will become the main development directions for this region. This study trys to provide scientific foundation for ecological restoration of the whole valley and its sustainable development.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    SPATIAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF CROP YIELD IN THE MIDDLE AND WEST OF JILIN PROVINCE
    LI Lin-yi, LIU Zhao-li, LI Chun-lin, WAN En-pu
    2002 (2):  182-185. 
    摘要 ( 687 )   PDF(173KB) ( 1082 )  

    In this paper,spatial correlation of crop yield in the middle and west of Jilin Province is analyzed by using the method of geostatistics semivariogram,taking the NDVI of NOAA/AVHRR spectrum data as the regionalized variable,aiming to provide theory and practical basis for field sampling of crop yield estimation using remote sensing.The ratio of nugget variance and sill of semivariograms are 21.1% and 9.7% in the west and middle regions in Jilin Province respectively.This shows that the crop yields are spatially correlated.The degree and range of correlation are far different in the different situations.In the west test region,the range is 49.9 km and the sill is 0.00019.In the middle test region,the range is 16.5 km and the sill is 0.00453.The dissimilarity in the western test region is larger than that in the middle one.The range in which the correlation existed of the former is far larger than the later.Different character is tics of spatial correlation of crop yield are decided by the environmental factors.Samples for crop yield estimation should be extracted according to the characteristic of spatial distribution of crop yield to promote the efficiency of sampling.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM RESOURCES IN JILIN PROVINCE
    YU Tao-fang, GU Chao-lin, WANG Hong, DUAN Xue-jun, YI Xiao-feng
    2002 (2):  186-192. 
    摘要 ( 854 )   PDF(459KB) ( 1614 )  

    This paper comprehensively evaluates and analyzes the tourism resources in Jilin Province, China. And it consists of three parts. The first two parts are on the resources evaluation and analysis. Based on the results of evaluation about the structural and spatial distribution of the tourism resources, it is found that, the natural resources play fundamental roles in Jilin, while the human and cultural resources are important complementary parts as well. In the spatial distribution analysis, the resources show the characteristic of "six clusters"and "three belts"spatial relations. Four clusters are centered on the cities, which are Changchun, Jilin, Baicheng, Tonghua and Ji'an; one cluster is around the Changbai Moutains and one cluster nears the frontier at Tumen between China, Russia and P.D. R. Korea. And the three belts are: 1) The west belt. It contains Xianghai and Momoge natural protection region. The evident of this zone is its ecological and ethical tourism resources. 2)The middle belt characterized by urban traveling and recreation, including Jilin and Changchun, together with their nearby Nong'an and Siping. 3) The last belt is also the most important one, which is the east zone. It covers the Changbai Mountains, the golden triangles of Tonghua and the Tumen River. This zone is remarkable for its abundant natural landscapes and unique folk customs. In the last part the concept planning is briefly constructed for the tourism resources in Jilin Province according to the above evaluation and analysis.

    相关文章 | 计量指标