Please wait a minute...

当期目录

    2001年, 第11卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2001-12-20 上一期    下一期
    全选选: 隐藏/显示图片
    论文
    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGESIN 21ST CENTURY
    CHEN Guo-jie
    2001 (4):  289-293. 
    摘要 ( 683 )   PDF(261KB) ( 899 )  

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE CHARACTERISTICS AND MAIN PROBLEMSOF MINORITY REGIONS IN CHINA
    ZHANG Luo-cheng, WU Chu-cai
    2001 (4):  294-299. 
    摘要 ( 510 )   PDF(330KB) ( 713 )  

    China is a country that has a large number of minorities, who live in specific regions which are mainly located in central and west China. These regions are abundant in natural resources, which are potential advantages and also an important basis for economic development in these regions. They are of general importance for China in strategic and ecological terms. They will not only affect the environment for survival of the minority regions but also affect the sustain able development of the eastern and central parts of China and even the survival and development of the Chinese nation as a wbole. Minorities live in relatively compact communities, among the 55 minorities, 35 of them were highly compact minorities, with a compact level of more than 90%. Here the development in infrastructure as well as social and econonic development (e. g. export-oriented economy) has been and is still slow, regional poverty are most concentrated. The economic structures in minority areas are still in the low stage, which have resulted in underdevelopment in these regions.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE WETLAND TYPES, FUNCTIONS ANDCONSERVATION IN CHINA
    ZHAO Kui-yi, HE Chi-quan
    2001 (4):  300-305. 
    摘要 ( 910 )   PDF(332KB) ( 777 )  

    According to preliminary statistics, there are 9.4×106ha of mire, 8.0×106ha of lake, 2.1×106ha of salt marsh, 2.7×107ha of shallow sea (0-5m), and 3.8×107ha of paddyfield, their total area amounts to 8.45 ×107ha. Wetland consists of natural wetland system and man-made wetland system. According to hydrology, landform,soil and vegetation etc., natural wetland can be divided into the following types: marine, esturine, riverine, lacustrine,palustrine subsystems. On the basis of the wetland bottom compound, waterlogged state and vegetation forms, it can be subdivided into 2 wetland classes. Man-made wetland can be subdivided into 4 wetland classes. Wetland is a unique landscape in the earth and one of the most important living environment with rich resources and many functions. At present, 22 different types of Wetland Natural Reserves have been established in China, in which 7 Wetland Nature Reserves have been listed in international important wetlands of "The Wetland Convention".

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE BENCHMARK LAND PRICE SYSTEM AND URBANLAND USE EFFICIENCY IN CHINA
    DING Cheng-ri
    2001 (4):  306-314. 
    摘要 ( 863 )   PDF(3120KB) ( 825 )  

    China began to introduce market principles and establish price mechanism to better manage land and improve land use efficiency in the late 180s. Since then, land m.arkets begin to emerge. A benchmark land price system,providing guidelines for land use rights selling and transferring, was established in order to overcome lack of market data and experiences in land transaction. The benchmark prices of land use rights are determined by land use, land use density (floor-land ratio), land grades, land improvement, and tenant resettlement costs. This paper first conducts a formal analysis based on modern urban economic theory. The formal model provides a theoretical foundation in which the bench mark land price system is assessed and evaluated in terms of land use and urban development. The paper then concludes thatthe benchmark price system has two theoretical problens. One is associated with the fact that floor-land ratio plays an important role in land price determination whereas the theory suggests the other way around. That is, floor-land ratio depends on land prices. The other problem is that the benchmark land price system does not provide adequate room for the substitution between land and capital inputs. The substitution is a key in achieving land use efficiency in land markets and urban development process. It is concluded that the practice of the benchmark land price system is at odd with reforms that aim to introduce market principles and mechanism to guide resource uses. Therefore, it is recommended that further land policy reform should be taken.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    SPECTRUM CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR IONCONCENTRATIONS AT WUHAN SECTOIN OF THECHANGJIANG RIVER
    XIA Xing-hui, CHEN Jing-sheng, CAI Xu-yi
    2001 (4):  315-320. 
    摘要 ( 575 )   PDF(352KB) ( 753 )  

    Spectrum analyses of water quality time series have been carried out for five hydrometric stations including Wuhan hydrometric station of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, etc. The fluctuations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3- concentra tions in river water under different physical geography conditions have about two-year cycle which is corresponding to hydrometeorological quasi-biannual-oscillation(QBO). Na+, Cl- SO42- have about two-year cycle in the area lightly affected by human activities while two-year cycle doesn't exist in the area heavily affected by human activities. All the fluctuations of major ions have about three-month cycle. The river discharge fluctuation accounts for 43.9%,45.1%, 54. 3%, 33.9%, 30.3% and 42.7% of the variance of Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Na+, Cl-, SO42-, respectively, at Wuhan from 192 to 1985. According to the spectrum characteristic of major ions, the duration of the time series has to be at least 13 years for trend analysis of monthly water quality data.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS ON CHANGE OFAGRICULTURAL WATER CONSUMPTIONIN THE CHANGJIANG DELTA
    ZHANG Yong-qin, MIAO Qi-long, PENG Bu-zhuo
    2001 (4):  321-325. 
    摘要 ( 764 )   PDF(938KB) ( 798 )  

    The potential evapotranspiration of specific crops in the Changjiang Delta is calculated by using Penman-Monteith method, and an agricultural water consunption model in the area is developed on the basis of agricultural production situation. This model has higher precision compared with actual data and can reflect the actual status of agriculture water need. Considering the meteorological, hydrological, economical development situation of the Changjiang Delta, this paper calculates and analyzes the volumes of agricultural water consumption in 2000, 2010, 2030 and 200 under different climate change conditions and different development speeds of urbanization in future. The result shows agriculture water demand increases with temperature rising and decreases obviously with cultivated area reducing. For the Changjiang Delta, the volume of agricultural water consumption in the future will less than that of present.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    APPLICATION OF MAP AND FILE INFORMATIONVISUALIZATION SYSTEM TO COMPREHENSIVEDIVISION OF NATURAL DISASTERS──Taking the Changjiang Valley as an Example
    HU Bao-qing, JIANG Mei-xin, JUN Su-lan, ZENG Qiao-song
    2001 (4):  326-335. 
    摘要 ( 640 )   PDF(583KB) ( 930 )  

    This paper generalizes the makeup and forming dynamic mechanism of natural disaster systems, principles and methods of comprehensive division of natural disasters, as well as structure, function and up-build routes of map and file information visualization system (MFIVS). Taking the Chang, jiang(Yangtze) Valley as an example, on the basis of revealing up the integrated mechanism on the formations of its natural disasters and its distributing law, there after, the paper relies on the MFIVS technique, adopts two top-down and bottom-up approaches to study a comprehen sive division of natural disasters. It is relatively objective and precise that the required division results include three natural disaster sections and nine natural disaster sub-sections, which can not only provide a scientific basis for utilizing natural resources and controlling natural disaster and environmental degradation, but also be illuminated to a concise, practical and effective technique on comprehensive division.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    CaCO3 CYCLES IN SALAWUSU RIVER BASINSINCE 150KA B. P.
    LUO Kai-li, LI Bao-sheng, ZHU Yi-zhi, JIN He-ling, ZHANG David Dian, YAN Man-cun, LI Hou-xin, YAO Chun-xia, ZHANG Yu-hong
    2001 (4):  336-342. 
    摘要 ( 719 )   PDF(376KB) ( 891 )  

    This paper, with Milanggouwan stratigraphic section as a typical section of the Salawusu River Basin,explores the relation between CaCO3 content distribution and climate change since 150 ka B.P. and concludes that: 1) The low-high changes of CaCO3 content in the section has a remarkable corresponding relation with the sedimentary cycles of ancient aeolian sand and overlying fluviolacustrine facies or palaeosols. 2) CaCO3 distribution in aeolian sand is relatively meagre, ranging from 0.8% -7.18%, or on an average 2.50% but relatively enriches in the fluviolacustrine faceis and palaeosols, ranging from 2.20%-14.9%, or on an average 5.4%. This implies that they have different climatic backgrounds. The former was the product of erosion, transport and deposition by wind under arid and cold climatic conditions, whereas the latter was related to its special low-lying geomorphic position between the Ordos Plateau and Loess Plateau and warm-humid climatic environment. When the climatic became warm and humid, fluviola custrine and swamp facies developed, soil-forming action strengthened, and low-lying catchment condition was favor able to CaCO3 accumulation. 3) The basic cause responsible for the multicycie of CaCO3 migration and accumulation in the Milanggouwan section may be the multiple alterations of winter and summer monsoons over the Mu Us Desert under the influences of climatic fluctuation of glacial and interglacial periods in the Northern Hemisphere since 150ka B. P..

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    DRY/WET CLIMATE CHANGE SINCE 960 A. D.IN TAIHU DRAINAGE BASIN OF CHINA
    WANG Zhang-hua, CHEN Zhong-yuan, KOU Ying, CHEN Yu
    2001 (4):  343-349. 
    摘要 ( 765 )   PDF(379KB) ( 771 )  

    The present study reconstructs an annual dry/wet grade series from 960 A. D. to 1992 A. D. in the Taihu drainage basin of eastern coast, China by collecting historical climatic records, to examine the climate periodicity and climate jumps. Power Spectrum analysis reveals that the dry/wet climate in the study area was a superposed phenomenon with the major period of quasi-100-year, and several other notable periods. These periods were supposed to be closely linked with the celestial activity. Climate junps are detected using moving t-test. The two abrupt changes around 1247-1263 A. D. and 1618-1635 A. D. are proved as regional events. The 14th to 15th century appeared as the wettest period during the last 1000 years in the Taihu drainage basin. These are interpreted as the consequence of east Asia climate change.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL GEOCHEMISTRY OFCHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN Betula ermanii FORESTIN CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA
    LIU Jing-shuang, YU Jun-bao
    2001 (4):  350-355. 
    摘要 ( 623 )   PDF(350KB) ( 677 )  

    Based on catalogue of biology and geochemistry of chemical elements, content characteristics and variation law of the large nutrient elements, the needful trace elements, the uncertain needful elements, the non-needful elements and the toxic elements in Betula ermanii trees are analyzed. The result shows that the content of the large nutrient elements in Betula ermanii trees is higher than that of other kinds of element; the contents of all kinds of elements in foliage with vigorous metabolism are higher than those in other parts; the content variations of the large nutrient elements and the needful trace elements with similar chemical property, geochemical property and biological function in different parts of Betula ermanii trees show the similar laws; but the other three kinds of elements variations are without laws. It is indicated that the variation of the needful elements in the plant follows a certain law, they are in relative equilibrium under undisturbed condition.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    MANAGING SIDE EFFECTS OF CULTURAL TOURISMDEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ZHOUZHUANG
    XU Hong-gang, TAO Wei
    2001 (4):  356-365. 
    摘要 ( 658 )   PDF(548KB) ( 852 )  

    In recent years Zhouzhuang has been quite successful in developing a mass tourism industry. However,formal analyses of the past experiences of other provinces indicate that there are significant risks in the tourism develop ment policy followed in Zhouzhuang. Although the well preserved and reconstructed physical buildings have facilitated list ing on the UNESCO World Heritage List, the traditional canal-town life style, the major attraction of Zhouzhuang, is giv ing way to commercialization. Quick and easy compensating measures have been adopted to create a staged image of an authentic traditional lifestyle. Precautions should be made now or Zhouzhuang runs the risk of becoming little more than a thematic park with no real cultural or social meaning for tourists or the inhabitants. A system dynamics model has been built for the purpose of developing an understanding of the complex structure of Zhouzhuang tourism development. The model consists of six sectors: physical environment, culture, infrastructure, job market, tourist, and financial resource allocation and promotion. Simulation of the model shows that the time delay, eroding target and the non-linearity are the key internal factors leading to a potential growth and decline tourism development pattern. Further simulations were conduct ed to examine the impacts of various policy options. The model suggests that the most effective policy for sustainable tourism development is a conservative one that controls and limits the numbers of tourists. It is expected that the model can provide a learning "micro-world" which will facilitate understanding of the complexities of tourism development and serve as a guide to effective policy formulation.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    A STUDY ON LANDSCAPE MOSAIC STRUCTUREIN URBAN-RURAL AREA IN NORTHWESTOF CHINA WITH RS AND GIS──A Case Study of Xigu District in Lanzhou City
    XU Jian-hua, LU Yan, AI Nan-shan, YUE Wen-ze
    2001 (4):  366-376. 
    摘要 ( 761 )   PDF(597KB) ( 915 )  

    At the study area of Xigu District in Lanzhou City, using RS & GIS as tools we apply Diversity, Domi nance, Fragmentation, Isolation and so on to study the quantitative, fractal and spatial characters of landscapes'struc tures in the four sub-regions divided by the morphological features. Using the Fractal Theory to establish the fractal struc ture models, we analyze the complexity and stability of various landscapes'distribution with fractal dimension value.The spatial distribution characteristics of landscape mosaic structure are also expounded. At the end of the paper we dis cuss the relevant problems on the main factors which control and effect on the spatial pattern of landscapes as well as on landscape optimization and management.

    相关文章 | 计量指标
    THE DRIVING FORCES OF LAND USE/COVER CHANGE INTHE UPSTREAM AREA OF THE NENJIANG RIVER
    YE Bao-ying, HUANG Fang, ZHANG Shu-wen, ZHANG Yang-zhen
    2001 (4):  377-381. 
    摘要 ( 867 )   PDF(277KB) ( 733 )  

    Based on the Landsat and Landsat 7 TM images, the land use/cover change was detected in the up stream area of the Nenjiang River between 199 and 2000. With the spatial analysis techniques of GIS, the maps of land use degree and its change within this period were produced. To identify the causes of changes, elevation and slope were regarded as the main natural influencing factors and were transformed from coverage format to grid format within GIS. The Thiesson polygon method was used to the spatial allocation of socio-economic factors including human population, live stock numbers, mechanizing power of farming and the nearest distance from the changed pixel to the trunk stream and to main settlements, thereby the spatial relationship between land use degree change and socio-economic factor variation was analyzed. According to results of the spatial correlation, the determinants of changes in land use/cover, i.e. eleva tion, slope, population density change, livestock increase were extracted quantitatively in this area. At last, the spatial multi-linear regression model of land use degree change was developed as follows: △La = 11.037-4.12 * elevation-0.298 * slope + 0.292 * △population + 2.96 * △livestock.

    相关文章 | 计量指标