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    2001年, 第11卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2001-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    CLIMATIC VARIATIONS IN CHINA OVER THE LAST 2000 YEARS
    YANG Bao, SHI Ya-feng, LI Heng-peng
    2001 (2):  97-103. 
    摘要 ( 1284 )   PDF(436KB) ( 967 )  

    A compilation of paleoclimate records from ice core, tree-rings, lake sediments and historical documents provides a view of temperature change in China over the recent 2000 years. For all-China temperature reconstruction, six sub-stages are identified for the last two millennia. Around AD 0-240, AD 800-1100, AD 1320-1400 and the period from AD 1880 on were warm while around AD 240-800, AD 1100-1320, AD 1400-1880 were cold. Also, temperature varied from region to region in each of the warm or cold periods. The Eastern Han warm period (0-AD 240), the cold period covering the span of Wei, Jin, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the MWP (AD 800-1100) and succeeding LIA occurred in eastern China and the Qilian Mountains. Only the fint two climatic events were recorded in Guliya ice core while the so-called MWP and LIA was far weaker. Also, the warming between AD 800 and 1100 didn't occur in the south of Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. Instead, the southern Xizang Plateau experienced warming in AD 1150-1400. The aggregated China temperature agrees well with North-hemisphere temperature in the past millennia, indicating close relationship of temperature changes between China and North-hemisphere.

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    LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION IN RURAL CHINA: THEORY AND APPLICATION
    XIAO Du-ning
    2001 (2):  104-114. 
    摘要 ( 957 )   PDF(754KB) ( 1038 )  

    In landscape with overpopulation, intensive management for economic production, and where even small natural-vegetation patches are scarce, ecological conservation generally must be developed in the course of economic development. Thus "landscape ecological construction" has evolved in China. This approach adds spatial elements and alters landscape pattern to strengthen inter-ecosystem linkages, improve functioning of damaged ecosystems, and increase productivity and stability of the whole landscape. Five examples of managed landscapes in China are presented: dike-pond systems in a river delta; multi-pond system in a rice paddy landscape; field-grass-wood grid system on unstable sand dunes; shelterbelt network in a crop field area; and field-grass-wood mosaic system on highly erodible hilly farmland. These indicate that ecological conditions can be improved along with increased economic production. Altering landscape structure and ecological flows by introducing small landscape elements in distinct spatial patterns is considered a key to the results. This reshaping of the land has focused on changing patch size, regularity of arrangement, biological and hydrological corridors, and networks, the matrix and grain size. It suggests that such changes can increase negative feedbacks and increase stability. Finally, planning and design principles are pinpointed for the landscape ecological construction process.

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    A HISTORICAL EXAMINATION ON LAND DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH CHINA
    YAN Ting-zhen, CHEN Xi-bo, HAN Guang-hui
    2001 (2):  115-119. 
    摘要 ( 636 )   PDF(363KB) ( 929 )  

    Desertification control has been facing severe situations in the interlocking area between cultivated land and grazing land in North China since the Qing Dynasty because of unreasonable land utilization. The paper analyzes the policies of all the previous governments to open up land, and examines the historical and geographical background and process by means of historical records. We consider that causes of the area of land desertification to extend are increase of farming migrants, the change of life style of Mongol and weather and land conditions. In order to control the spread of land desertification, we suggest the level of the government to make policies should be improved, the number of farming migrants should be controlled, the Government's general and specific polices should be actively publicized, and investment in agriculture should be increased.

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    GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATEDOWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUSTRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA
    LI Xiao-jian
    2001 (2):  120-128. 
    摘要 ( 819 )   PDF(649KB) ( 1067 )  

    By using interview data from three large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in agriculture related industries, this paper reveals that SOEs in inland area are much slow in response to globalization. Although they pursued some strategies to adjust themselves, they are far behind the position to utilize the opportunities generated by economic globalization. Most of them are still out of the networks of transnational corporations. The strategies they adopted are quite different from SOEs in the coastal area. They overlook the importance of information infrastructure, well-educated personnel, and collaboration with the competitive leaders in their industries. The lagging situation is related to isolated location, traditional culture, and slow progress in enterprise reform. International comparison shows that the case companies did follow the general paitems that globalization promotes extension of company's networks of linkages but in a rather slow phase. The decision makers should encourage intra-regional linkages between SOEs, between SOEs and private, foreign owned companies, as well as inter-regional linkages among them. The latter appears particularly important given the enlarging gaps between coastal and inland areas.

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    EVOLUTION OF URBAN SYSTEM IN NEW ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES AND PLANNING COUNTERMEASURES
    ZHANG Jing-xiang, WU Qi-yan, RUI Fu-hong
    2001 (2):  129-136. 
    摘要 ( 664 )   PDF(515KB) ( 887 )  

    Urban system is the spatial reflection of the inner-deep social economic movement. New economic circumstances not only make the evolution of urban system present one brand-new landscape, but also put forward a new subject for planning of urban system. This article analyzes the properties of the traditional economic process and its essential effect on urban system; it makes a complete survey on the properties of new economic circumstances and its effect on re-forming of urban system; the complicated influential process and result are concluded into the aspects, such as new growth motive force, new economic organization, new location factor and new spatial phenomenon, and its inner effect mechanism is shown as well. In this article, the change process of urban system space is explained in four aspects: (1) dissimulation in the process of spatial agglomeration and diffusion; (2) change of "center-periphery "effect; (3) acceleration growth of axial regions; (4) re-forming of the world and regional urban system. Based on the above theoretical analysis and the properties & requests of new economic circumstances, this article finally puts forward four philosophies emphasized by urban system planning, and fonns the new frame for drawing-up of urban system planning.

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    STUDY ON THE FREQUENCY AND PRINCIPLE OF FLOOD CATASTROPHE IN THE CHANG JIANG DELTA AND ITS NEIGHBORING REGIONS IN THE LAST 2000 YEARS
    ZHANG Sheng, ZHU Cheng, ZHANG Qiang
    2001 (2):  137-143. 
    摘要 ( 622 )   PDF(453KB) ( 915 )  

    Documented materials, especially those about flooding catastrophe, are abundant comprehensive and well-preserved, which makes possible the systematical collection of materials about historical document about climate evolution in Changjiang (Yangtze) Delta region and its neighboring areas. We make good use of the exceptional information to discuss the genesis and principle of flooding in this region. Analysis shows that the main flooding periods in the studied region in the last 2000 years were the Western Jin Dynasty, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties, Southern Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. The periods with flooding peak values were the 4th century, 5th century, 7th century, 9th century, early 12th century, early 14th century, mid-15th century, and early 18th century A. D. Possibility of reappearance of flooding peak value in the early 21st century will be great, and the hazard prevention and the hazard reduction will be still hard.

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    THE SEQUENCE OF PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES SINCE ABOUT 4KA B. P., RECORDED BY NIYA SECTION IN SOUTHERN MARGIN OF TARIM BASIN
    ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, TASHPOLAT Tiyip, SHU Qiang
    2001 (2):  144-149. 
    摘要 ( 700 )   PDF(378KB) ( 909 )  

    Through synthetic researches of multi-index geological records of Niya section, which are of high resolution in southern margin of Tarim Basin, this paper has reconstructed the sequences of paleoclimate in this region during historical times (since about 4000a B. P.). During the last 4000 year, the area has experienced alternations of relative cold-moisture and relative warm-dry periods. Three evident cold-moisture periods and three warm-dry periods are identifing. The study shows that the human activities have an intimate relation with the evolution of paleoclimate in the southem Xinjiang. Paleoclimate has played very important role in influencing human being's agricultural activities.

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    CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    WANG Xi-kui, QIU Shan-wen, SONG Chang-chun, KULAKOV Aleksey, TASHCHI Stepan, MYASNIKOV Evgeny
    2001 (2):  150-154. 
    摘要 ( 1171 )   PDF(319KB) ( 1000 )  

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are related to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism regions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

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    THE CHARACTERISTIC OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT IN LINGDINGYANG ESTUARY
    CHEN Bing-lu, ZHANG Yun-ni, CHEN Xin-geng, WANG Zhi-gang, YANG Guang-xing
    2001 (2):  155-162. 
    摘要 ( 631 )   PDF(452KB) ( 865 )  

    Hydrologic features, load of main pollutants and current condition of water quality in Lingdingyang Estuary are discussed by references and monitoring data. Affected by topography, runoff and tide, its dynamic condition is very complicated. Different water areas have different hydrologic features. The topography under the water of Lingdingyang Estuary is higher in the northwest than that in the southeast. The shoal alternates with the deep trough within the bay . The distribution of the salinity and the contents of the mud and the main pollutants tally with the topography tendency. Change in water quality goes through four stages. Current condition of water quality is fairly good. Inorganic nitrogen is the primary pollutant, and then phosphorus. Rich in nutrition of nitrogen and phosphorus become a more and more prominent problem.

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    EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE RECLAMATION ON THE HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SAN JIANG PLAIN, CHINA
    WANG Yi-yong, YANG Yong-xing
    2001 (2):  163-167. 
    摘要 ( 773 )   PDF(314KB) ( 1014 )  

    The Sanjiang Plain is the largest and most concentrated wetland region in China, the total area is about 1.088 × 10ha with rich marsh resources and biodiversity. Before 1949, the Sanjiang Plain was a large untravelled wild plant and waterfowl habitat, and there were some rare swans, red-crowned cranes and thousands of hydrophytes. From 1950, the local &ernment began to reclaim the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain, built the commodity grain base of Northeast China, and developed the industry of grain processing, animal husbandry, etc. Up to now, there are 54 farms which control 3.5087 × 106ha agriculture field. The marsh areas are reduced by 1/2; many rare animals and plants are near extinction. The human activities and agriculture reclamation made a great change on the environment, especially made water balance change and regional climate change. So to study and protect the wetland ecosystem and marsh resource are extremely urgent. This paper focus on the hydrology change and climate change before and after marsh reclamation, including evapotranspiration, run off, soil character, micro-climate on both marsh and agriculture field, and the reason that cause seasonal drought, waterlogging and degeneration of marsh.

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    THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTICULTURAL BACKGROUND—The Studies of Minority Regions in the Western China
    LU La-chang
    2001 (2):  168-173. 
    摘要 ( 887 )   PDF(423KB) ( 889 )  

    China is a country with many nationalities. Each of them has formed its own special culture, which is different from the mainstream of majority Han nationality, by adapting to geo-environment during history. Due to different backgrounds, the regional developmental model of minorities in the western China is different from the Han nationality and western countries. Combining a knowledge-based civilization and sustainable development, the minority areas can seek the systematic integration of culture-economy-ecology. Based on this, the paper suggests that the minority areas in western Chinacshould take the way of emphasizing developmental quality rather than developmental quantity for a har-monious system of culture-economy-ecology. Some approaches'foi developing minority areas in western China have been put foreword.

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    RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA
    TANG Hui-jun, JIANG Jian-quan
    2001 (2):  174-180. 
    摘要 ( 683 )   PDF(430KB) ( 960 )  

    The authors once made a preliminary research on population carrying capacity of the land in the Economic Area of Zhujiang Delta (EAZD for short) in 1995, and reckoned that the ultimate population in this region will be 23 550 thousand by year of 2000. While the population in being in EAZD was 22.62 million in 1999. This accords with the prefigured result in the rough from the point of view of development. According to the data of plow land resources from the 2000 Statistical Yearbook of EAZD and the study on the population-foodstuff-plow land relationship, this paper calculates the productive potential of plow land and the population carrying capacity of land by year of 2010, and puts forward the countermeasures for improving the population carrying capacity of land in this region.

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    STUDY ON METHODS OF LAND USE DYNAMIC MONITORING AT COUNTY LEVEL —Taking Dehui County, Jilin Province for Example
    LI Lin-yi, HUANG Fang, LIU Zhao-li, WAN En-pu
    2001 (2):  181-185. 
    摘要 ( 810 )   PDF(495KB) ( 928 )  

    Remote sensing technique has played an important role in land use dynamic monitoring, but as for the land use dynamic monitoring at county level, traditional remote sensing methods such as satellite imagery visual interpretation and computer classification can not meet its demand for accuracy. The result of 1: 10 000 land use investigation map has high accuracy, but this method can not be used to dynamically monitor the land use because of its big expenses, long period and difficulty in updating data. In this paper, the characteristics of physiognomy, climate and the status of land use in Dehui County are taken into consideration and a set of method, which takes use of 3S techniques and applies to Northeast China Plain, is come up with. When the land use type of a land parcel changed as a whole, the date updating can be make by changing its land type ID in the attribute table in a GIS. When the land use type of an irregular area changed, GPS receivers are used to position its border. This set of method is characteristic of high accuracy and low expenses. It gets the information of land use change timely and can be used to dynamically monitor the land use.

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    ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT FEATURE OF BREEDING AREA AND ENDANGERED FACTORS OF RED-CROWNED CRANE IN CHINA
    YU Jun-bao, LIU Jing-shuang, WANG Jin-da
    2001 (2):  186-191. 
    摘要 ( 1049 )   PDF(351KB) ( 879 )  

    Red-crowned Crane (Grus japomnsis), a kind of endangered large-scale wader, is one of valuable and rare birds in the world. It has been indexed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals (Aves), China Data Book of Major Protection Wild Animals, World Red Data Book of Birds, State Trade Protocol of Endangered Wild Plants and Animals Species. The paper studies the amount, distribution, habit, growth and habitat of Red-crowned Crane in China in detail, systematically analyses the ecological environment feature of Red-crowned Crane breeding area, including the vegetation feature, the vertical distribution law of absolute humidity and temperature, some carnivorous food and herbivorous food for Red-crowned Crane. At present, the ecological environment of breeding area has been destroyed seriously by human activity. The area of marshland is reduced rapidly. A large area of reeds has been disappeared. The survival of Red-crowned Crane is threatened greatly. So it's necessary to maintain the biodiversity of breeding area in order to protect Red-crowned Crane.

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