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    2000年, 第10卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2000-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    DECADAL CIMATIC VARIATIONS INDICATED BY DULAN TREE RING AND COMPARISON WITH OTHER PROXY DATA IN CHINA OF THE LAST 2000 YEARS
    YANG Bao, KANG Xing-cheng, SHI Ya-feng
    2000 (3):  200-201. 
    摘要 ( 1024 )   PDF(116KB) ( 933 )  

    Based on high-resolution tree-rind data from Dulan area of Qinghai Province, five spells have been divided:the warm period before 230's A. D., the cold period between 240's A. D. and 800's A. D., the significantly warm period between 810's A. D. and 1070's,i. e. "Medieval Warm Period”,the cold period including the"Little lce Age "1420's-1870's and the warming period since 1880's. All the eleven coldest or warmest decades and several great abrupt changes took place before the Middle Ages, indicating that climatic system operated in great instability during the period 150's-1100's A. D. . Comparison of the tree-ring data with other temperature proxy data from East China, Guliya ice core as well as the south of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau shows that such great climatic events as Eastern Han warm period between the beginning of the 1 st century and the previous fifty years of the third century, the cold period covering the span of the Wei, the Jin, and the Southern and Northern dynasties, the well-known“Medieval Warm Period”as well as the "Little lce Age”appeared in these series such as East China and Dulan area. Only the first two climatic events were recorded conspicuously in Guliya ice core while the "Medieval Warm Period and "Little lce Age”is far weaker.Also,the well-defined "Medieval Warm Period" didn't occurred in the south of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The warming since the 20th century is the warmest in the last 2000 years in Guliya ice core, the second in Dulan area and East China, but it scarcely seems pronounced in the eastern part of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.

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    EVOLUTION OF POPULATION, RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT AND INTEGRATED STRATEGY OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN SHANGHAI
    YUAN Wen, YANG Kai
    2000 (3):  202-208. 
    摘要 ( 832 )   PDF(149KB) ( 953 )  

    Study on coordiantion among population(P),reeourcee(R),environment(E),and development(D)(PRED) has comprehensive and extensive contents,which serves as the core of sustainable development.Since the 1980s,PRED has been becoming one of the most important regional studies in China. Based on existing research and collected data,this study analyses the course of the PRED evolution in Shanghai during 1978-1995.Seven indicators were selected to assess the evolution characteristics and interaction mechanism of Shanghai PRED,including growth rate of GDP, growth rate of population,growth rate of industry energy consumption etc. These indicators were designed to reflect representativeness, relativity and data availability.This study showed that there was obvious asynchronous among indicators and annual change of single indicator lacked of regularity,coordination between environment and economic remains the main challenge facing Shanghai,and the key readjusted factors will he population growth rate, GDP growth rate and per residential area growth rate. The study further pointed out that plan, structure and system power were equally important for the more coordinate development in Shanghai.Detailed dicussion on the systematic measurement in each aspect of P,R,E, D indicated that higher development leve1 is the essential basis for Shanghai 1'RED coordination.

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    PALEO-ENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION DURING THE PERIOD OF NANJING HOMO ERECTUS
    ZHU Cheng, ZHANG Yun
    2000 (3):  209-217. 
    摘要 ( 667 )   PDF(164KB) ( 1078 )  

    Using five group dating of the fossil by Uranium series age method shows that the age of Nanjing Homo Erectus is between 280-430 ka B. P. Combining with the analysis of fossil mammalian form Stegodon, Sus.Lydekkeri Zdansly, M.pachyosteus Young, P.grayi Zdansky and E.SanmeniensisTeilhard et Pive teau, which are located in the same stratum, the authors thinks that the Nanjing Homo Erectus may have lived in the late Mid Pleistocene (about 350 ka B.P.). Based upon the spores and pollen in the cave sediments of the area, we can find that most of spores and pollen are subtropical and warm temperature types. For instance, broad leaf trees which are fond of warm climate, including Cunning hamia, Jsuga and Pinus ,as well as Morus, Carpinus and Ptendium. Among the above spores and pollen, only Tsuga,Liquidambar, Betula,Ulmus and Salix are the remainders of Humid hot environment from the Tertiary period. Above evidences illustrate that the living environment of the Nanjing Homo Erectus not only was not cloder but also was not drier than the Peking Man's. It could be said that dry climate and the ice age of the Mid Pleistocene didn't undergo this area.As for the manner of the Homo Erectus's making stone artifact and using fire, because now we have not found the evidence of the stone artifact and the ash, the futher excavation to the talus of the Huludong cave should be needed.

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    FRESH SNOW CHEMISTRY FROM HIGH MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CENTRAL HIMALAYAS
    KANG Shi-chang, QIN Da-he, YAO Tan-dong, PAUL A. Mayewski, SALLIE Whitlow
    2000 (3):  218-225. 
    摘要 ( 718 )   PDF(163KB) ( 901 )  

    During 1997 summer, fresh snow samples were collected from the high elevation region (5400-7000 m) of Dasuopu Galcier on the northern slope of Mt. Xixabangma (28°33'N, 85°44'E). Compared with other remote regions in the world, major ion concentrations in fresh snow are very low during summer in Mt. Xixabangma, suggesting that the atmosphere is very clean and may represent background value for the middle/upper troposphere in the middle/low latitude area. During summer at Mt. Xixabangma the fresh snow chemistry is minimally influenced by anthropogenic pollutants as revealed by the snow pH (mean value of 6.0). Conductivity of fresh snow are low and constant. A multi regression curve of pH vs conductivity shows a strong correlation; snow pH is negatively correlated with conductivity when pH < 6.0, and positively correlated when pH > 6.0. This suggests that the dominant chemical species of snow are interchanging between acid anions (e.g.SO42-,NO3-) and crustal cations.

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    THE EFFECT OF LAND USE CHANGES ON SOIL CONDITIONS IN ARID REGION
    CHEN Fu, PENG Bu-zhuo
    2000 (3):  226-230. 
    摘要 ( 997 )   PDF(159KB) ( 970 )  

    Land use change may influence a variety of natural and ecological processes, including soil nutrient, soil moisture, soil erosion, land productivity and biodiversity. In this paper, 9 typical land use patterns sustainable 15-20 years have been chosen to study the effect of different land use patterns on soil nutrient, soil erosion, soil moisture, saline and so on. We drew conclusions as follows: Firstly, it is clear of the effect of land use change on soil. Land use change results in the decline of soil nutrient and erosion rate, but the increase of land productivity; secondly, the erosion rate and the rate of vegetation cover is the subtractive correlativity. It reflects the effect of soil erosion on land productivity. It is clear of the positive correlativity between land productivity and soil moisture and explains the role of land surface vegetation to preventing aridity in the northwestern China; lastly, it is feasible to develop animal husbandry properly in arid region. The topgallant land use pattern is the combination of forest and meadow in arid region. The rational land use may prevent or weaken the intensity of soil erosion in a certain extent. Therefore, activities accorded with ecological principal such as readjustment of land use structure, rational reclamation along with adoption of prevention and control measures can reverse land degradation process.

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    FOUNDATION AND APPLICATION OF BACKGROUND TREND LINE OF CHINA'S INBOUND TOURISM
    SUN Gen-nian
    2000 (3):  231-237. 
    摘要 ( 660 )   PDF(154KB) ( 992 )  

    Modern inbound tourism in China has been developing for 20 years, a trend line of inbound tourists in statistical data began to show. This paper introduces the concept of tourism background trend line, and explores its two functions as a barometer in demonstrating fluctuation in the tourism economy and as a forecaster in forecasting tourism development. The tourism background trend line is a new concept, the word "background" derived from environment science, refers to the "trend line" which reflects the dynamic curve or dynamic equation of tourism development without considering the impact of unexpected incidents. The introduction of this concept was inspired by Karl Marx's comments on the relation between value and price. Tourism background trend line reflects the summary of multiple factors involving tourism resources, tourism demand, population growth, the scale and speed of economic development, and the spatial interaction between tourism origins and destimations. It demonstrates the natural and stable trend and the temporal law of tourism development in a country or region. The tourism statistical curve is at random, susceptible to disruptions and disturbances from serious political, economic and environmental happenings, but it always fluctuates around the background line. Tourism background line can reveal the potential of a country's tourism development. Compared with the statistical line, it can be used as a "barometer" indicating ups and downs of tourism industry in the past. When naturally extended, the background trend line also can be used for forecasting the trend of tourism development in future. In this paper, 4 tourism background trend lines of China's inbound tourists, i.e. foreign tourists, Hong Kong/Macao/Taiwan tourists, overseas Chinese tourists and total tourists from abroad, were established with statistical data from 1978 to 1996. And the impacts of the Political Event in 1989(or Tiananmen Square Incident) on China's inbound tourism were evaluated. The result shows that the impact of the Event was not limited within one year, but it stretched over 3 years. The total loss was 20 million in tourist arrivals and $ 1620 million in foreign currency income. The paper also studied the trend of China's inbound tourism in the next 4 years.

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    AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF VALLEY BOUNDARY FROM DEMS IN THE HILLY LOESS PLATEAU
    QIAN Ya-dong, LU Guo-nian, CHEN Zhong-ming
    2000 (3):  238-244. 
    摘要 ( 975 )   PDF(111KB) ( 717 )  

    As an important geomorphological divide in the hilly Loess Plateau, valley boundary plays a pivotal role in the construction of distributed models for studying the processes and mechanism of soil erosion, sediment transfer and runoffs within a watershed. In the past, this boundary manually interpreted from large scale maps and aerial photographs. In this paper, the authors first present a simple and practical definition for topographic structures unique to the highly dissected topography in the hilly Loess Plateau in DEMs; then define the valley boundary cells in a DEM with the following features: 1) they are most likely located on a concave slope, 2) these cells have the sharpest transition in slope, 3) those cells on the downward side of the valley boundary should have a slope gradient larger than 20°,4) as the boundary of the entire valley in a basin valley boundary must be continuous; then devise an algorithm to automatically delineate valley boundary from DEMs and implement it in a computer. This algorithm was applied to detect drainage networks and the valley boundary in the Wangjiagou basin in the hilly loess area of Lishi County, Shanxi Province, China from a 10 m DEM. The extracted results are highly comparable to those manually interpreted from aerial photographs.

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    A STUDY OF THE SURFACE EMERGING PALAEOCHANNELS ON THE SOUTH COAST PLAIN OF LAIZHOU BAY
    HAN Mei, LI Dao-gao, ZHAO Ming-hua, JIANG Ai-xia
    2000 (3):  245-253. 
    摘要 ( 687 )   PDF(152KB) ( 1190 )  

    By employing many methods including distinguishing the land maps, interpreting the aerophotoes and Satellite photographes, consulting historical documents, investigating ancient cultural relics, making investigations in the field, analysing the names and features of the place, and analysing the characteristics of the deposit, etc., a systematic study of the surface emerging palaeochannels on the South Coast Plain of Laizhou Bay has been made. Twenty five surface emerging palaeochannels were discovered and verified. According to the formation age, these palaeochannels were divided into two stages: six palaeochannels were formed in the Early and Middle Holocene, and nineteen palaeochannels were formed in the Late Holocene(the historical period). According to the landform features, the palaeochannels are divided into four categories: upland palaeochannel belts, strip shaped upland palaeochannels, trough shaped depression palaeochannels and ancient riverbeds. Among the four categories, the strip shaped upland palaeochannels are the main types. The swinging and movement of the channels helped the alluvial plains expand and cause the coastal ancient lakes to vanish in succession.

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    CONCEPT, DISTRIBUTION LAW AND FORMATION MACHANISM OF INLAND SALINE ALKALINE WETLAND ── Taking Songliao Plain for Example
    SUN Guang-you, LUO Xin-zheng, YI Fu-ke, ZHANG Xiao-ping
    2000 (3):  254-260. 
    摘要 ( 887 )   PDF(120KB) ( 890 )  

    The paper, taking Songliao Plain for example, studied the concept, distribution law and formation mechanism of inland saline alkaline wetland. The inland saline alkaline wetland is distributed over the inland region of arid or semi arid climate; it is the wet or slightly stagnant environment, forming saline alkaline soil and salt vegetation and making the geogra phical environment fonming complex with an ecosystem of saline alkaline wetland. The laws of zone nature and non zone nature control the distribution of the inland saline alkaline wetland that extensively spreads in north part of China and other countries. The inland saline alkaline wetland is formed jointly by atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere including intellectual sphere. Under the special condition, the artificial activity is possibly the key function. In order to improve the human environment, it is a great duty confronting the whole world to rationally transform the inland saline alkaline wetland. Therefore, we presented an anti inland theory to promote the environment transformation.

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    VEGETATION CHANGES OF THE TAIHANG MOUNTAINS SINCE THE LAST GLACIAL
    YANG Xiao-lan, XU Qing-hai, ZHAO He-ping, LIANG Wen-dong, SUN Li ming
    2000 (3):  261-269. 
    摘要 ( 711 )   PDF(120KB) ( 898 )  

    The vegetation of the Taihang Mountains was dominated by grass with less than 10% forested area during the last pleniglacial. During the period of 17000-10000 a B.P. the forested area reached to 20%-30% , and reached to 20%-40% during the Early Holocene in the period of 10000-8000 a B.P. followed by the temperature increasing rapidly. But the northern part had more forested area than that of the southern part. During the period of 8000-5000 a B.P. forests developed further to 50% or more. It was the highest period of the forest cover degree. After then, the forests began to be destroyed first in the southern part of the Taihang Mountains by people. Since 2500 a B.P. the forests were destroyed deadly. The forest cover decreased to less than 5% before 1949. Since 1949 , although the government hold the policy of close hillsides to facilitate afforestation, the forest cover of Taihang Mountains could not exceed 11.6% . So afforestation is an important work to keep economic and ecological sustainable development.

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    STUDY ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WETLAND RESOURCES IN THE USSURI /WUSULI RIVER BASIN
    LIU Hong-yu, LU Xian-guo, WANG Chang-ke
    2000 (3):  270-275. 
    摘要 ( 946 )   PDF(136KB) ( 949 )  

    The Ussuri/Wusuli River basin joins the border between the Northeast region of Heilongjiang Province of China and the Far East region of Russia. The watershed consists of approximately 26000000 ha and the shared border stretches more than 1100 km. The Ussuri River forms part of the border between Russia and China. Two thirds of the watershed ecosystem is in Russia, one third in China. Khanka / Xingkai Lake is the border Lake of Russia and China, with the area of 4380 km2. The Ussuri / Wusuli River Basin is rich in wetland resources, including surface water resources and wetlands. There are about more than 100 rivers belonging to one and two branch rivers, wetlands are mainly distributed in the Sanjiang Plain in China, which is the largest marsh area in China, with an area of 114 million ha. Human activities and agriculture reclamation for many years have led to many environment problems: 1)decreasing of wetland area led to loss of wetland environment functions, decreasing of biodiversity and increasing the number of natural disasters such as disastrous drought and waterlogging, which affect directly sustainable utilization of resources and economical development. 2) water supply is not evenly distributed, water pollution in rivers, marshes and lakes are more serious than before. Based on above study, some suggests of sustainable development in the basin have been made, which include: 1) developing the international wetland natural reserve and domestic comprehensive protected area to prevent wetlands from destruction and disturbance by human activities, 2) strengthening the protection and management of wetlands in lake shorelines and riparian zones (rivers and streams) to prevent water quality of rivers and lakes from pollution, 3) restoring the destroyed marsh in riparian zones and the  island like forests" of wetlands 4) developing positively transnational ecological tourist trade to promote the economic development in the river basin scope, 5) developing international cooperation research to promote sustainable utilization and protection of wetland resources.

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    ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL ANIMALS IN BROAD-LEAVED PINE FORESTS IN SOUTHERN SLOPE OF XIAO HINGGAN MOUNTAINS
    HOU Wei-lin, ZHANG Hua
    2000 (3):  276-281. 
    摘要 ( 749 )   PDF(157KB) ( 992 )  

    This paper studied the soil animals of four type forests of broad leaved pine forests in the southern slope of the Xiao Hinggan Mountains. The samples were extracted from four forest types in every first week of June, August, October, and every forest type was chosen out three plots. Since there are different soil animals in different depths, every plot was divided into four partitions with the same vertical distance: litter, 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm. Using hand sorting out large soil animals, Tullgren method (to middle and small soil animals) and Baermann method (to moist soil animals) to collect soil animals. Among the four type forests, insecta has the largest amount of groups of 54. Oribatida has the most number of individual, which is 1547, occupying 21.73 percent of total collectings. There are 81 groups of soil animals, totalling 7118 belonging to 8 Class 24 Order 57 Family, in which there are 54 groups of big sized soil animals totalling 2370, 41 groups of middle and small sized soil animals totalling 4808. Among all the soil animals,their dominant group is 3 ones, usual growp is 14 ones, and rare group is 64 ones. The results show that among the four type forests, the groups of soil animal in Tilia pine forest are much more than the others, with the highest variety index, and the individual number of the soil animals is also very large. The numbers of group and individual in Picea Abies Pine forest are both small.Among the four forest types, the soil animals in Tilia pine forest are most similar to Betula costata pine forest. There is so little similarity between the soil animals in Picea Abies pine forest and in the other three forest types.

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    STUDY ON FLUXES OF CH4 EMISSION FROM PADDY FIELDS IN CHANGCHUN AREA
    YAN Min-hua, MA Xue-hui, WANG De-xuan
    2000 (3):  282-287. 
    摘要 ( 684 )   PDF(174KB) ( 829 )  

    Little has been done in measurement and research of the flux of CH4 emission from paddy fields in Changchun area, Jilin Province, China before 1994. So the purpose of the study is to offer available regional data of CH4 emission flux and to discuss the factors which affect CH4 emission from paddy fields. Experimental paddy fields are chosen using TM pictures respectively in Xinlicheng (43°49′N, 125°20′E) of the Yitong River's and in Wanchang (43°44′10″N, 125°53′11″E) of the Yinma River's alluvial plain. The fluxes of CH4 emission from paddy fields are measured by the method of static chamber in Changchun area in 3 consecutive years. The research results show that the peak of CH4 emission from paddy fields occurs during the booting stage. The mean fluxes of CH4 emission are 7.056 mg/(m2·h) and 0.489 mg/(m2·h) in the paddy fields of flood and discontinuous irrigation respectively. The contrastive study holds that climate condition, the way of water management and fertilizer variation have significant influence on fluxes of CH4 emission from paddy fields. The difference of climatic conditions causes the interannual change of the flux of CH4 emission from paddy fields. In general, the flux of CH4 emission from paddy fields of flood irrigation is greater than that from paddy fields of discontinuous irrigation. To change the way of water management perhaps is an available way to reduce CH4 emission flux from paddy fields.

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    PROGRESS IN URBAN GEOMORPHOLOGY—Review of Urban Geomorphology
    HUANG Jin-hong, MU Gui-chun
    2000 (3):  288-288. 
    摘要 ( 632 )   PDF(92KB) ( 1583 )  

    The researches of urban geomorphology have been developed vigorously since the middle of the 1980s in China and become one of the most active fields among geomorphological researches. A considerable progress in theory and application aspects has been gained. For example, the academic property and characteristics of this discipline are definite, the object, contents, ways and means of study are explored and studies of urban geomorphology are carried out in many cities.lt is necessary to build up an integrated theory system of this discipline with the deepening and widening of study in the field. Urban geomorphology,writtem by Prof. DIAO Cheng-tai and published in June 1999 by the Southwest China formal University Press, is a new book which riviews advances of urban geomorphology in China in last 15 years, and makes a systematic exposition of the theory system, study methods and applied practice of this branch. The contents and structure of this book embods characters, development and trend of this new branch of science in China.

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