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    2000年, 第10卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2000-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    THE STEPS FORWARD OF GIS IN CHINA
    CHEN Shu-peng, ZENG Shan, ZHONG Er-shun
    2000 (1):  1-6. 
    摘要 ( 739 )   PDF(417KB) ( 915 )  

    Researches and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in China started in the early 1980s. In the early period, the development of GIS was mainly depended on the progress and applications of remote sensing, aerial photography, as well as computer aided design (CAD). In recent years, with the development of Global Positioning System(GPS) and Internet technology, GIS has being developed vigorously in the county. Looking ahead to the 21st century, a new era of “Digital Earth” and “Cyberspace” is coming, which will provide a great opportunity as well as a challenge to the China's GIS circles.

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    PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON RIVER WATER CHEMISTRY IN CHINA
    CHEN Jing-sheng, XIA Xing-hui
    2000 (1):  7-12. 
    摘要 ( 966 )   PDF(184KB) ( 989 )  

    River water resource is the most important component of water resources in China. This paper reviews the progress in the research on river water chemistry in China. It includes three parts: 1) the development of river water quality monitoring in China (at present, there exist three water quality monitoring networks in China: near 3000 water quality monitoring stations under the Ministry of Water Resources, several thousands water quality monitoring sites under the State Environmental Protection Administration and four sites under the China's GEMS/Water Program); 2) progress in the research on chemical characteristics of river water chemistry in China and their geographical roles on natio wide and region wide scales; and 3) progress in the research on river quality changes in the last 40 years (the long term monitoring data reveals that the water quality of the Changjiang River has acidification trend, the Songhuajiang River had alkalization trend, and the Huanghe River has concentration trend in the last 4 decades).

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    CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSTRUCTION OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY IN ARID REGIONS
    CHENG Guo-dong, XIAO Du-ning, WANG Gen-xu
    2000 (1):  13-19. 
    摘要 ( 773 )   PDF(210KB) ( 980 )  

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of the landscape structures and landacape ecological processes in arid regions of China. Landscape structure is simplicity and homogeneity with the pattern of desert oasis river and canal corridor. The spatial distribution of landscape heterogeneity mosaics is relatively dependent on water resources. In arid regions, the landscape changes rapidly and extensively because of the sensitive landscape ecosystems and fragile regional ecosystems. For the sustainable development of arid regions, the theories and methods for the eco environmental construction and the strategies of ecological construction in the arid regions were proposed in the view of landscape ecology. Keynote subjects of landscape ecology were also discussed. The paper points out that protecting and increasing landscape diversity and heterogeneity are critical to control ecological safety in arid regions.

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    NEW PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
    ZHU Zhen-guo, YAO Shi-mou
    2000 (1):  20-29. 
    摘要 ( 685 )   PDF(288KB) ( 676 )  

    According to the basic features of socio economic development in China, the paper retrospects the developmental process of Chinese cities in the 20th century. Based on lots of data and related research achievements, five new patterns of Chinese urban development are pointed out, that is 1) regional disparity of urban development in China is still obvious and large; 2) cities in developed region develop in the form of agglomeration and coordination; 3) spatial layout shape of Chinese cities appears relatively tight, and there exists great outside expansion inclination; 4) the construction of exploitation zone becomes the new important factor of urban development in the 1990s; 5) number increase of cities at county level become the main tide of urban development, but cause the discrete understanding for the concept of urban substantial region, which construct a challenge to urban management. In the end the article puts forward a series thoughts on the future trends and countermeasures of urban development in China.

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    BASIC CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTROLLING FACTORS OF ANASTOMSING FLUVIAL SYSTEMS
    WANG Sui-ji, LI Jin-song, YIN Shou-peng
    2000 (1):  30-37. 
    摘要 ( 785 )   PDF(259KB) ( 1655 )  

    Although anastomosing fluvial rivers are given much attention recently by some research workers because the result channel sandstone of which is one typical primary reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas, of which the flood plains and the interchannel wetlands are pay zones where coals had formed, the comprehension of anastomosing river is some extent limited at present. Some researchers regard that the anastomosing river river and the anabranched river are the same kind of rivers. In this paper, the sedimentary, geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics and the main controlling factors of anastomosing fluvial system are summarized systematically. Some of the characteristics are compared with others fluvial rivers. Humid climate is suitable to form anastomosing channel systems, in arid semiarid regions anastomosing river maybe develop if many befitting factors combine together. The authors of the paper think that anastomosing river is one typical channel pattern and is dissimilar to anabranched channel pattern.

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    DISTRIBUTIONS OF SULFUR POLLUTANTS IN EAST ASIA
    GAO Hui-wang, HUANG Mei-yuan, AN Jun-ling
    2000 (1):  38-43. 
    摘要 ( 613 )   PDF(660KB) ( 614 )  

    A Eulerian sulfur deposition model is used to study the distributions of sulfur pollutants in East Asia, in which important physical and chemical processes such as transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, vertical transportation in cumulus cloud, gas phase chemistry, aqueous phase chemistry and heterogeneous aerosol chemistry are included. Two cases, the periods of 1987.07.02 GMT00-1987-07-03 GMT00(case 1) and 1989-04-20-GMT00-1989-04-21 GMT00(case 2), are studied and the distributions of SO2 and SO42- in East Asia are shown. It is revealed that the patterns of distributions of SO2 and SO42- are different under different meteorological conditions. In the upper layer, the concentrations of SO2 and SO42- are 0.4-1.0 μg/m3 and 0.2-0.5 μg/m3, 4.0-10.0 μg/m3 and 2.0-6.0 μg/m3 in the middle layer. In the surface layer, the levels of SO2 range from 4.0 to 30.0 μg/m3 and from 2.0 to 8.0 μg/m3 for SO42-. Distributions of SOx are controlled by emissions in the surface layer, while in the upper layer it is mainly affected by precipitation. The distributions of SOx show the interaction of emissions, winds and precipitation in the middle layer.

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    THE FORMATION, EVOLUTION AND OPTIMAZATION OF TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE IN THE SOUTHERN CHINA
    LU La-chang, XU Xue-qiang
    2000 (1):  44-51. 
    摘要 ( 965 )   PDF(236KB) ( 1002 )  

    With the change of geopolitical pattern of the world, pacific rim area increases economic cooperation, instead of military antagonism. After reform and open to outside world, the southern China takes in an amount of investment from Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan, taking advantage of superior geo environment and thus forms a topical model of core periphery in the southern China. The core periphery model in the southern China is territorially made of three parts: core area — Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan; peripherial area — Zhujiang delta; second core area — parts of Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Fujian Province and Hainan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Its evolutional stage of this model can be divided into four stages: (1) the stage of polarization of core area; (2) the stage of the second core area strongly controlled by core area; (3) the transitional stage of the second area; (4) the stage of the southern China space integrity. Taking the core periphrial model in the southern China as an integrity of interrelational and rational division, its whole functional organized system is “input product assemble output”, core area is mainly then as the managed and transported center, the second area plays a product and productive control function and becomes center of manufacturing, study and development, periphrial area constructs as the center of material and raw material and the base of agricultural and side line products. Based on the analysis of the formative structure, evolutional law and the design of territorial function, we suggust the way of territerial optimazation as follows: (1) establishing the large hinterland which takes Xijiang basin as its core; (2) construct the high and renewed technological corridor; (3) constructing stable and varied material and raw material base; (4) reinforcing the organization and adjustment and managment between core area, periphrial area and second periphrial area. (5) constucting the varied corridor among core area, the second area and perphrial area.

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER TRANSFORMATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT IN THE ARID REGION —A case study in Alar irrigation region of Xinjiang, China
    LI Xin, SONG Yu-dong, NIAN Fu-hua
    2000 (1):  52-60. 
    摘要 ( 763 )   PDF(260KB) ( 926 )  

    The characteristics of water balance in arid regions is that the streams are formed in mountain area and continuously evaporates and infiltrates in the process of flowing to plain area, streams finally disappear in the desert or flow into the lakes, which are the low reaches of the rivers. But the distribution and transformation of water in Xinjiang, China have changed under the influences of human activities. The influences of human activities take place in a short time and regionally, especially in arid land where water is the key factor of environment. Water inside of oasis has increased, and water out of oasis or at the lower reaches of the river has decreased. Human activities have caused the environment changes in both positive and negative aspects by changing the circulation and distribution of water. Under the influence of human activities, oases in Xinjiang have expanded, meanwhile some lakes have contracted desertification is serious, natural vegetation has declined and natural environment out of oasis has degenrated.

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    STUDY ON FOREST FIRE DANGER MODEL WITH REMOTE SENSING BASED ON GIS
    HUANG Fang, LIU Xiang-nan, YUAN Jin-guo
    2000 (1):  61-67. 
    摘要 ( 890 )   PDF(206KB) ( 1118 )  

    Forest fire is one of the main natural hazards because of its fierce destructiveness. Various researches on fire real time monitoring, behavior simulation and loss assessment have been carried out in many countries. As fire prevention is probably the most efficient means for protecting forests, suitable methods should be developed for estimating the fire danger. Fire danger is composed of ecological, human and climatic factors. Therefore, the systematic analysis of the factors including forest characteristics, meteorological status, topographic condition causing forest fire is made in this paper at first. The relationships between biophysical factors and fire danger are paid more attention to. Then the parameters derived from remote sensing data are used to estimate the fire danger variables, According to the analysis, not only PVI (Perpendicular Vegetation Index) can classify different vegetation but also crown density is captured with PVI. Vegetation moisture content has high correlation with the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (LE) to potential ecapotranspiration (LEp). SI (Structural Index), which is the combination of TM band 4 and 5 data, is a good indicator of forest age. Finally, a fire danger prediction model, in which relative importance of each fire factor is taken into account, is built based on GIS.

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    A STUDY ON WETLAND CLASSIFICATION MODEL OF REMOTE SENSING IN THE SANGJIANG PLAIN
    ZHANG Shu-qing, ZHANG Shi-kui, ZHANG Jun-yan
    2000 (1):  68-73. 
    摘要 ( 897 )   PDF(189KB) ( 717 )  

    The Sanjiang Plain, where nearly 20 kinds of wetlands exist now, is one of the largest wetlands distributed area of wetlands in China. To identify each of them and pick up them separately by means of automatic interpretation of remote sensing from TM Landsat images is extremely important. However, most of the types of wetlands can not be divided each other due to the similarity and the illegibility of the wetland spectrum shown in TM images. Special disposals to remote sensing images include the spectrum enhancement of wetland information, the pseudo color composite of TM images of different bands and the algebra enhancement of TM images. By this way some kinds of wetlands such as Sparganium stoloniferum and Bolboschoenus maritimus can be identified. But in many cases, these methods are still insufficient because of the noise brought from the atmosphere transportation and so on. The physical features of wetlands reflecting the diversification of spectrum information of wetlands, which include the spatial temporal characteristics of the wetlands distribution, the landscape differences of wetlands from season to season, the growing environment and the vertical structure of wetlands vegetation and so on, must be taken into consideration. Besides these, the artificial alteration to spatial structure of wetlands such as the exploitation of some types of them can be also used as important symbols of wetlands identification from remote sensing images. On the basis of the above geographics analysis, a set of wetlands classification models of remote sensing could be established, and many types of wetlands such as paddy field, reed swamp, peat mire, meadow, CAREX marsh and paludification meadow and so on, will be distinguished consequently. All the ways of geographical analysis and model establishment will be given in detail in this article.

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    WEB GIS: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
    ZHENG Kou-gen, SOOMRO Tariq, Rahim, PAN Yun-he
    2000 (1):  74-79. 
    摘要 ( 807 )   PDF(185KB) ( 1495 )  

    With the rapid expansion and development of Internet and WWW (World Wide Web or Web), Web GIS (Web Geographical Information System) is becoming ever more popular and as a result numerous sites have added GIS capability on their Web sites. In this paper, the reasons behind developing a Web GIS instead of a “traditional” GIS are first outlined. Then the current status of Web GIS is reviewed, and their implementation methodologies are explored as well. The underlying technologies for developing Web GIS, such as Web Server, Web browser, CGI (Common Gateway Interface), Java, ActiveX, are discussed, and some typical implementation tools from both commercial and public domain are given as well. Finally, the future development direction of Web GIS is predicted.

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    SOME MEASURES OF INCREASING RAIL TRANSIT RIDERSHIPS: CASE STUDIES
    ZHANG Yun-quan, YAN Xiao-pei, CLAUDE Comtois
    2000 (1):  80-88. 
    摘要 ( 687 )   PDF(278KB) ( 1057 )  

    This paper is mainly concerned with how to increase rail transit ridership and how to coordinate with multimodity to optimize the entire public transportation systems. Three case cities, Montreal, Toronto and San Francisco, with metro systems are reviewed in different aspects, including urban planning, transport policy, flexible fare system, safety and security measure, special service, new technical application to improve the quality and value of its service for increasing revenues and profit, comtributing to the long term development of public transit. Some conclusions can be drawn: 1) urban planning should be closely connected with urban transport planning; 2) the role of government is predominant to implement railtransit; 3) the facilifies of railtransit should be advanced, reliable and safe; 4) quality service should be match with rail facilities; 5) special service for the disabled, yound and senior should be advocated.

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    PROGRESS OF CHINESE REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY STUDIES IN RECENT TWENTY YEARS
    ZHANG Jun-tao, LIU Feng, LI Zhe
    2000 (1):  89-96. 
    摘要 ( 622 )   PDF(238KB) ( 1072 )  

    Regional geography, embodying the regionality and integration, is the kernel of Geography. Since the 1980s, the Chinese geographers have extensively taken part in the social practical activities and made progress in physico geographical regionalization, economic regionalization, territorial (regional) development planning, construction of special economic zone, and integrated research in the major areas of China. Through these works, the theories of regional geography have been richened and the capacity participating in the social practice promoted as well. In China, many regional researches had been conducted respectively from the aspects of regional physico geography and regional economic geography, etc. According to the cases, this paper gives a review on the studies of regional geography during the latest two decades in China. It ought to be indicated that the natural and human components should be combined and the disciplines intersected and permeated, with the support of advanced technology. In order to serve the regional sustainable development, on the background of global change, this is an inevitable tendency for the development of the regional geography.

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