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    1999年, 第9卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1999-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    GROWTH OF NEW DESIGNATED CITIES IN CHINA
    顾朝林, 甄峰, 邱友良, 叶舜赞
    1999 (2):  97-106. 
    摘要 ( 1149 )   PDF(630KB) ( 1046 )  

    The opening of the economy has contributed to the rapid urban development in China over the last 17 years from 1979 to 1996. It is worthwhile to note three new development trends of Chinese urban system. The first trend identifies the emergence of mega urbanization regions. The second trend rebuilds a closer tie between the Chinese urban system and the global urban system through the development of the world (global) cities and international cities. The third trend shows the fast polarized development in hinterlands and peripheries around advanced economic regions. However, the research literature on Chinese urbanization in English has shown the scarcity of good databanks and the analysis results are incomplete. Some researchers also always question the quality of the data. Using the most completed and most recent data, this paper reviews the growth of China's new designated cities since 1949. This paper also seeks to examine the various policies and to explore the underlying factors that have affected the growth of China new cities. From the development of China's cities in the past 47 years from 1949 to 1996, it is easy to find that metropolitan cities developed with a relatively high rate compared with smaller ones, but the ratio of number and population to whole country cities remained stable; Chinese urban system development had entered a phase of small cities development; in terms of cities regional distribution, the south and east region is still the central area of urban development.

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    REGIONAL STRUCTURE OF CAPITAL MARKET OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN CHINA'S MAINLAND
    焦华富
    1999 (2):  107-112. 
    摘要 ( 598 )   PDF(184KB) ( 1003 )  

    Since China's reform and open door, the countries and regions of direct investment in China's mainland have been increasing. In 1995, the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in China was US$ 37.81 billion that was from more than 170 countries and regions. The regional structure of capital market of FDI in China has three characteristics: (1) The most of FDI was from the near countries or regions, Hong Kong Macao, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia provided 80.3% of the amount of FDI in 1995. (2) Only several countries and regions provided most of FDI in China. (3) According to the contributory rate, the main capital market of FDI in China could be divided into four classes, including the guiding market, subsidiary market, new and development market, opportunity market. Most of FDI in China was from the developing countries and regions, which had a negative effect on the size and technical level of foreign capital enterprises. The author puts forward the countermeasures to improve the regional structure of capital market: (1) to keep the guiding market stable, (2) to open up chiefly the subsidiary market, (3) to guide actively the new and developing market, (4) to try hard to start the opportunity market.

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    ON THE DISCORDANT URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN XI'AN CITY
    康慕谊, 江源
    1999 (2):  113-119. 
    摘要 ( 702 )   PDF(793KB) ( 1072 )  

    On giving a description of the urban development in Xi'an City proper in recent years, this paper has made a comparison between Xi'an and some other cities in China about the achievements of the urban development. Compared with those other cities, Xi'an falls much behind, though its urban development in recent years has been fast and successful. An analysis to the urban development of Xi'an City has been made to reveal the discordance between the growths of economy and population and the constructions of urban infrastructure, municipal facilities and public services in recent years. The analysis has also unveiled that some urban problems, such as crowded traffic, tight housing, inconvenient living conditions, serious environmental pollution and so on, are not eased or even aggravated by the discordant developments. The causes of the discordant development have been probed into and some “software” suggestions helping to solve those problems have been put forward in the end of the paper.

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    MODIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THREE RIVER AREA IN XIZANG
    王家骥, 高吉喜, 舒俭民, 菅小东, 李京荣, 常虹, 童岩
    1999 (2):  120-125. 
    摘要 ( 751 )   PDF(469KB) ( 940 )  

    The three river area (the middle drainage area of the Yarlung Zangbo River between its tributaries of the Lhasa River and the Nyangqu River) is a rapid economic development area in Xizang(Tibet) Autonomous Region. As the weather in this area is frigid with frequent wind and little rain, the eco environment condition is extremely bad, and the resistance and rehabilitation ability of the landscape system is weak. Therefore, in the implementation of agriculture development program in the area, it is not advisable to adopt the traditional method of changing grassland to agriculture land, instead, the agriculture landscape in the area should be modified. The primary contents of the modification plan are to improve the middle and low yield fields to the high yield fields with irrigation system, to transform the dry land on the slopes, uneven land, dry and low yield fields to forest or grassland. So the problem of food demand will be solved and the degenerating trend of eco environment will be controlled.

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    THE CHARACTERISTICS AND VERTICAL ZONE SPECTRUM OF NATURAL DISASTERS IN THE TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS, XINJIANG
    熊黑钢, 刘耕年, 崔之久
    1999 (2):  126-133. 
    摘要 ( 787 )   PDF(301KB) ( 1066 )  

    With the mountain elevation increasing and climate condition change, the laws of formation, distribution and development of the various natural disasters, which are caused by the climate, change correspondingly and the vertical zone spectrum of special mountain natural disasters is formed. This research is helpful to finding effective measures to prevent disasters, avoiding and reducing the harm of natural disasters to industrial and agricultural production. There are 12 disasters in Tianshan Mountains, which can be divided into three zones. (1) Base zone (torrential rain collapse zone): types of the various disasters in this zone are caused by suddenly rain in the low middle mountain of the arid area. The disasters occur mainly from May to August, thus, the frequent periods of their bursts are simultaneous with the maximum period of precipitation in every year. (2) Middle zone (snowmelt water icing zone): most disasters, which happen in the middle high mountain area, have close relation with variation of temperature. (3) Upper zone (snow drift avalanche zone): the movement of snow mantle creates disaster in this zone. The slope direction and height of mountain greatly influence the frequency of hazards and the formation of vertical zone spectrum of natural disasters. Due to the regional diversities of temperature and precipitation, the vertical zone spectrum of natural disasters in mountains are different in different latitude and longitude zones.

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    MASS BALANCE SENSITIVITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF GLACIER NO.1 AT URUMQI RIVERHEAD, TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS, CHINA
    刘时银, 谢自楚, 王宁练, 叶佰生
    1999 (2):  134-140. 
    摘要 ( 728 )   PDF(522KB) ( 1112 )  

    In this paper the degree day mass balance model is applied to the sensitivity test of mass balance/ELA(equilibrium line altitude) to climate change of Glacier No.1 at Urumqi Riverhead, the Tianshan Mountains, China. The results demonstrate that the mass balance of Glacier No.1, which is of continental type and accumulates in warm seasons, is less sensitive than that of a maritime glacier. On Glacier No.1, air temperature rise of 1℃ or precipitation increase by 20% can cause the ELA shift 81 m up or 31 m down respectively. Air temperature and precipitation play the different roles in the mass balance formation, in which the mass balance hypsometry follows the temperature variations by the means of rotation against the elevation axis and it shifts in parallel with precipitation change. Assuming a future temperature rise of 2 ℃ the mass losing trend on Glacier No.1 can not be radically alleviated even if there is a precipitation increase by 30%.

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    STUDY ON METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT
    赵跃龙, 张玲娟
    1999 (2):  141-145. 
    摘要 ( 867 )   PDF(354KB) ( 970 )  

    The assessment of degree of fragile environment has been improved, but the most of them still remain at the level of qualitative analysis though some have reached the level of quantitative analysis. There are many problems in these existed quantitative assessments yet. Their use may cause the result of little assessment comparison which will limit their usage and extension. In this paper, a set of method on assessment of fragile environment is established. It is a systematic, complete, objective and flexible method of assessment of fragile environment, and can be easily used in practice. At last, its practicality and accuracy are tested by using it to assess fragile degree of environment within 26 provinces in China.

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    POLLUTION TREND IN THE TUMEN RIVER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
    田卫, 俞穆清, 王国平, 郭传新
    1999 (2):  146-150. 
    摘要 ( 886 )   PDF(323KB) ( 1031 )  

    The Tumen River had failed to meet Grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ levels in the environmental quality standard for surface water, and had exceeded Grade Ⅴ level. Surface water pollution is serious. The major excessive standard pollutants were CODMn and SS. After taking effective treatment steps, the worsening trend of water pollution will be basically under control. But the change of runoff in the Tumen River is large in a year, especially during as long as five month freezing period, smaller flow and lower temperature of river waters led to weak dilution and self-purification capacity. The water quality of the Tumen River will not reach the appoint functional water quality standards, even if sewage meets discharge standard, which will influence water resources utilization in the lower reaches of the Tumen River and regional economic development. Therefore water pollution has become the major restrictive factor of the development of the Tumen River area.

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    HYDROCHEMICAL INDEXES OF SEAWATER INTRUSION AND COMPREHENSIVE JUDGEMENT ON INTRUSIVE DEGREE
    赵建
    1999 (2):  151-158. 
    摘要 ( 634 )   PDF(587KB) ( 1198 )  

    The paper discusses the use of five hydrochemical indexes in evaluating seawater intrusion, and ranking the intrusion degree for Cl-, M, Br-, rHCO3/rCl and SAR. The fuzzy mathematical comprehensive judgement model has been adopted as the method of adjustment. Based on more than 300 water samples obtained from four typical profiles in the coastal region of Laizhou Gulf during the period from June 1993 to June 1995, we made a comprehensive judgement of seawater intrusion degree. The result shows that intrusion degree was becoming heavier from June 1993 to June 1994, but more steady and inactive in the high level of intrusion degree in the perennial severe intrusion zone from December 1994 to June 1995. Since entering the 1990s up to now, the process of seawater intrusion has translated from its peak developmental stage from the 1970s to the 1980s into a stage of equilibrium and slow development mainly because the intruded area expanded inland, precipitation increased at some extent recently and various measures of prevention and harness begin to show the effect.

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    CAPABILITIES OF MULTIMEDIA GIS
    Soomro Tariq Rahim, 郑扣根, Turay Saidu, 潘云鹤
    1999 (2):  159-165. 
    摘要 ( 889 )   PDF(585KB) ( 1486 )  

    A geographical information system (GIS) is used to capture, store, retrieve, analyzed and display the spatial (locationally defined) data. In contrast to traditional GIS, multimedia GIS is not only able to collect, analyze and store the data in traditional formats i.e. text, images (pictures) and graphs but also audio (sound), animations and video (moving pictures) as well. In this paper the advantages of multimedia GIS over traditional GIS are explained. Multimedia GIS is fully capable of providing services to both technical and non technical users and users of multimedia GIS can retain more knowledge than users of traditional GIS. It can be applied to various fields such as tourism, environment, education etc. Some implementation issues such as data updating, information retrieval and data compression etc. are also addressed. Finally, future development of MMGIS (using new multimedia technologies such as Virtual Reality and Virtual Reality Modeling Language) is discussed.

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    GENETIC TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND ICE IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    刘福涛, 王春鹤, 宋长春
    1999 (2):  166-171. 
    摘要 ( 1058 )   PDF(344KB) ( 1103 )  

    The southern limit of permafrost in northeast China oversteps that in the other regions of Eurasia by a few degrees of latitude. There are 11 types of ground ice found within the studied region, including vein ice, massive bedrock ice, lava caves ice and so on. The water for the formation of the ground ice comes from various sources: precipitation, surface water, soil water, and ground water. The ground ice types coexist with the surrounding environment. The correlation and distribution features of the original types of ground ice, their surrounding environments are analyzed for the theoretical study of ground ice formation, engineering control of hazards in ice rich areas and the prediction of changing conditions.

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    FOREST LANDSCAPE AND BIRD DIVERSITY IN MOUNTAIN REGION, XISHUANGBANNA, YUNNAN
    王直军, Chris Carpenter
    1999 (2):  172-176. 
    摘要 ( 750 )   PDF(362KB) ( 1102 )  

    The degeneration of forest landscapes is mainly caused by human impact on the natural environment, which is posing a great threat to biodiversity. We studied the relationship between forest landscapes and birds in mountain regions of Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province. In Jinuo ethnic region, forest landscape is degenerating, and bird diversity is reducing as a result of human influence. However, in Hani ethnic region of Mengsong area, a comparative study area, there are also traditional practices of agriculture and forestry. The traditional practices are dynamically adaptive to local geographic environment and social economic conditions. A great deal of biodiversity exists in the place where people have lived for many generations and use the resources of environment in a sustainable manner. Considering bird diversity and forest landscape of mountainous area, both economic and ecological benefits should be taken into account, which relate to land use and landscape protection. Biodiversity conservation, resource management and policy making should pay much attention to the best interconnection of land use and landscapes protection.

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    DESERTIFICATION HAZARD AND FARMING GRAZING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LINGWU YANCHI REGION OF NINGXIA
    单鹏飞, 温晋林, 蔡昌俊
    1999 (2):  177-183. 
    摘要 ( 829 )   PDF(440KB) ( 917 )  

    In the view of the desertification hazard process in Lingwu Yanchi region of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the paper analyzed the interaction between the physical environment and the human activities, and discussed the social problems of controlling sandy land by using the way of “decreasing farming for increasing grazing” and developing agriculture and animal husbandry. The results indicated that the changes of desertification in the Quaternary geological periods was a kind of climatic geomorphic processes, and a kind of climate human processes in human history, which are mainly controlled by climatic conditions and partly interfered by human economic activities. Both of the physical environment and the human activities have double effects to aggravate or reverse the desertification.

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    THE APPLICATION OF FRACTAL STUDY IN FORECASTING FLOOD CALAMITIES IN WUZHOU, GUANGXI
    常疆, 王良健
    1999 (2):  184-188. 
    摘要 ( 782 )   PDF(843KB) ( 975 )  

    As a kind of sudden and common natural disast er, flood is characterize d by the temporal fraction. A date series of floods was established according to the catastrophic records in Wuzhou, Zhuang Autonomous Region of Gaungxi, P. R. China since 1949.By the means of the model of fractional brownian motion, we can imitate the temporal sequence of past and forecast the developing trend in future, on the basis of which, the R/S analysis was employed to cal cul ate the temporal sequence, the 'H' exponent and function R(τ)/S(τ) were d etermi ned. It is anticipated that the next catastrophic flood in Wuzhou will happen in 1999.

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    IMPACT OF WATER ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DRY HOT VALLEY OF JINSHA RIVER ON SOIL DESERTIFICATION
    刘刚才, 刘淑珍
    1999 (2):  189-192. 
    摘要 ( 844 )   PDF(258KB) ( 965 )  

    Based on the field investigation and the analysis of soil moisture curve, it is clearly shown that there is a positive relationship between vegetation coverage rate and soil moisture capacity and soil depth in dry hot valley of the Jinsha River, and also there is a desertification process with seasonality. It is suggested that the basic factor of desertification in the area is water deficiency (seasonal drought and low soil water capacity) and the direct dynamic of desertification is soil erosion. Some effective countermeasures are presented, of which water saving planting and irrigation techniques should be firstly applied in the studied area.

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