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    1996年, 第6卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1996-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    SOME ASPECTS OF EXPORT LABOUR SERVICE IN CHINA
    阎小培
    1996 (1):  1-14. 
    摘要 ( 587 )   PDF(2619KB) ( 747 )  

    This paper focuses on the evolution and characteristics of the export labour service in China since the modern time especially since the reform of economic system in 1978.Historically the contract workers, central to the goal of making a living, were the main body of the international migration.And Guangdong and Fujian provinces were the main origin places of the migration but the destination of the migrants varied.Both pull and push forces for driving the migration were identified.Then analysis is turned to the characteristics of export labour service of China since the reform of economic system in 1978.1)The export laobur has increased rapidly despite a small quantity.2)The export labour service is planned and organized.3)The export workers are considered temporary migrants.4)The dominant ways of export labour service are project contracts and pure labour export.And 5)the destinations of export labour are scattered over the world.Thirdly, the impact of the export labour service on the origin places and the emerging problems and contradictions were examined. In China, export labour service has alleviated the employment contradiction and gradually become one of sources of gaining foreign currency on the one hand, and China, through the service, has learnt the advanced technology and management experiences of other countries.However, some problems in the service such as small number, unsatisfactory quality of the export labour, and the weak link betweenthe service and employment are emerging, which need to be solved.Finally, the prospects for China as a large country of export labour was discussed.

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    STUDY ON WETLAND BIODIVERSITY IN CHINA
    吕宪国, 王荣芬
    1996 (1):  15-23. 
    摘要 ( 1058 )   PDF(2473KB) ( 898 )  

    Wetland biodiversity means mainly the types of wetland ecosystem and biological species diversity.Biodiversity includes all species of plants, animals and microbes, all gene possessed by them and all ecosystems consisting of them and environment.According to the origin and genesis, China's wetlands can be divided into natural wetland ecosystems including mires, lakeshores, bottomland, seashore, wet meadow, etc., and artificial wetland ecosystem including paddy field.Then based on geomorphological type, these ecosystems can be divided into 15 subsystems, then based on soil substrata and ecological niche conditions, they can be subdivided into 15 classes, finally according to construction species of plants, several types can be divided into.They are not only the expression of ecosystem diversity, but also the base for biological communities subsistence.This peculiar ecological niche provides a complex and perfect special habitat for various animal and plant communities.In this special habitat, there exist various biological types from monomolecular microbes to higher plants and animals, especially some endangered and rare plants and animals.According to the statistics, there are more than 300 species of birds in China's wetlands, making up one-third of the total number of China's birds.Wetlands not only the goodplace for waterbirds living, but also the important environment on which wild animals and plant rely for existence. There are 65 species of mammals, 50 species of reptiles, 45 species of amphibious animals, 1040 species of fish, 825 species of higher plants, 639 species of angiosperm, 10 species of gymnosperm, 12 species of pteridophyte and 164 species of bryophyte investigated in China's wetlands.

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    PALEOSOLS AND THEIR REFLECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE NORTHEAST REGION OF THE QINGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU
    徐叔鹰, 潘保田
    1996 (1):  24-34. 
    摘要 ( 649 )   PDF(2599KB) ( 835 )  

    Based on field investigations, laboratory analyses and 14C dating, this paper discusses the laws of the formation and development of the paleosols in the northeast region of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau since Late Pleistocene.The authors reconstruct basic conditions of climate, vegetation, soil and natural zones during the three periods in which the paleosols were formed, i.e.the last interglacial of the Late Pleistocene, warm stage of Late Glacial and the Optimum of Holocene.Finally, this paper discusses the relationship between the paleosols and the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.

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    IMPACT OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL RISE ON FLOOD AND WATER LOGGING DISASTERS IN LIXIAHE REGION
    许朋柱
    1996 (1):  35-48. 
    摘要 ( 905 )   PDF(2642KB) ( 880 )  

    Lixiahe region is one of the susceptible area to flood and waterlogging disasters in China due to its low topographic relief and having difficulty in draining floodwater away.The condition will be more serious if sea level rises in the future.The estimated results by some scientists indicate that the sea level could rise probably 20-100 cm by 2050.However, what the effect will future sea level rise exerts on flood drainage and on flood or waterlogging disasters? A hydrological system model has been developed to study the problem in the lower reaches of the Sheyang River basin.Predicted results from the model show that, if sea level rises, drainage capacity of each drainage river will decrease obviously, and the water level will also rise.From the change of drainage capacity of drainage rivers the trends of flood and waterlogging disasters are analyzed in the paper if the severe flood that happened in the past meets with future sea level rise.Some countermeasures for disaster reduction and prevention against sea-level rise are put forward.

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    DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF WATER AND LAND RESOURCES IN THE HEXI REGION, CHINA
    肖洪浪, 高前兆, 李福兴
    1996 (1):  49-56. 
    摘要 ( 761 )   PDF(307KB) ( 815 )  

    Hexi region is located in the northwest arid zone in China, being both the base of industry and agriculture, and the prop of developing northwestern China on a large scale in the next century.On the basis of the study on exploitation and utilization process of water and land resources in past 40 years, and present productivity, this paper approaches the utilization trend and development potential of water and land resources;analyses the characteristics, problems and directions of resource utilization in the future;and proposes the countermeasures of rational development of water and land resources.

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    THE EVALUATION OF ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HUMAN ACTIVITY IN YULIN REGION
    陈利顶, 傅伯杰
    1996 (1):  57-65. 
    摘要 ( 717 )   PDF(342KB) ( 814 )  

    The eco-environmental susceptibility is to demonstrate the reaction of a ecosystem under the same influences of the human activity.It comprise many influencing factors which have a complicated relation to the eco-environmental susceptibility.In this paper, the Analysis of Hierarchy Process(AHP)is used to determine the weight of each factor to the eco-environmental susceptibility through analyzing the relationship between human activity and environmental deterioration.And the weighted summation method is used to calculate the eco-environmental susceptibility of different divisions in Yulin region. The result shows that the loess hilly and gully area is more subjective to deteriorating eco-environment than the desert area because of the strong human activity and severe soil erosion.

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    LINEAR STUDY ON LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY OF DONGLING DISTRICT OF SHENYANG
    赵羿
    1996 (1):  66-77. 
    摘要 ( 780 )   PDF(2655KB) ( 844 )  

    Landscape configuration means the distribution and conjunction of landscape element.Inflenced by geomorphological process and human interference, the landscape configuration of Dongling District of Shenyang City appears 5 types:even distribution, aggregated distribution, linear distribution, positive interrelation spatial linkage, and negetive interrelation linkage.We subdivided two lines, which go through the landscape of Dongling District separately, into segments of equal length and studied the information of the landscape elements, which is distributed on the line, by mathematical theory of communication.Then we expounded the characteristics of landscape heterogeneity and its changing law in Dongling District as well as the relationship with geomorphic condition and human disturbance.

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    THE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTAL CHARACTERISTIC AND PALEOCLIMATIC EVOLUTION OF EBINUR LAKE, XINJIANG
    吴敬禄, 王苏民, 吴艳宏
    1996 (1):  78-88. 
    摘要 ( 775 )   PDF(2582KB) ( 923 )  

    On the basis of lacustrine sedimentary profile of Ebinur Lake, sequences of evolution of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in Ebinur Lake area have been rebuilt by analysing the sedimentary stratigraphy, bio-stratigraphy and gepochemistry as well as the chronological records.The results show that, during the last 10 ka years, the general change trends of the paleoclimate in Ebinur Lake area can be divided into three stages:(1)10. 2-8.3 ka B. P., a warm-cool dry climate stage;(2)8.3-3.5 ka B.P., a warmer moist climate stage(specially, 7.3-6. 4 ka B. P., a relatively stable humid temperate stage);(3)3. 5 ka B. P.-present, adraught temperate climate stage, similar to the present climate. In addition, there existed clearly several times of secondary undulations of dry-humid climate, i.e. 8.3 ka and 7.3 ka for dry climate

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    AN APPROACH TO THEORY AND METHODS OF URBAN GEOMORPHOLOGY
    刁承泰
    1996 (1):  89-96. 
    摘要 ( 758 )   PDF(2499KB) ( 843 )  

    Urban geomorphology is a new subject, and its theory and practice need approaching and substantiating.This paper deals with the utilization and transformation of landforms in the process urbanization, and the evolvement and unique character of an urban geomorphological environment.Taking an evaluation about catastroability of the urban geomorphological environment in Chongqing as an example, the author introduces a researching method in the urban geomorphology, including selection and quantification of evaluation parameters, a grid method used in mapping and a mathematical synthesizing method to evaluate on a fixed position.

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