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    1994年, 第4卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1994-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER VALLEY
    陈国阶
    1994 (2):  97-105. 
    摘要 ( 594 )   PDF(2563KB) ( 904 )  

    Unbalanced development in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Valley is so obvious that it can be divided into three grades. The east including Shanghai municipality, Jiangsu and Zheyang provinces enjoys its advance prestige; the middle including Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan and Sichuan provinces occupies the second position; and the west including Guizhou, Yunnan, Qinghai provinces and the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region remains backward. The differences of the three grades are shown in the following aspects:(1) economic strength including gross national product (GNP), gross output value of industry and agriculture etc, inclines to the east; (2) the total social output valed per capita, the output value of agriculture and industry per capita are lowerand lower from the lower reaches to the upper arches; (3) the proportions of output value of industry to total output value of industry and agriculture, light industry to total industry, rural industry to agriculture, etc. are gradually reduced from the east to the west; (4) the ratio of farming labour employment to the total labour employment of society in the east is much lower than that of the middle and upper reaches; (5) the living standard in the lower reaches is much higher than that of the middle and upper reaches.

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    THE EROSIONAL PROCESS OF THE SOFT SHORE OF CHINA IN THE RECENT DECADES
    王文海, 吴桑云, 夏东兴
    1994 (2):  106-118. 
    摘要 ( 566 )   PDF(2707KB) ( 985 )  

    Coastal erosion phenomena in China have become increasingly evident since the end of the 1950s, and the process of coastal erosion has been speeding up since the end of the 1970s. Almostall the coastal types, the rock coasts, the muddy coastS, the sandy coasts, the coral coasts, ets. on 32, 000-km iong coastline of China are in danger of erosion, especially the beaches in open coasts and the coasts of abandoned river deltas. Although coastal erosion phenomena are extensively distributed in China, the nit6nsities of erosional processes in different regions are quite different. There are various causes of coastal erosion in China, and different factors often concurred in the coastal erosional processes. The main causes for coastal erosion are sand exploitation on shores and the decrease in river sediment discharged. Coastal erosion process has endangered the houses, roads, engineering works and tourism resources in the coastal zones.

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    THE UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT AND SPATIAL DIFFUSION OF CHINESE CENTRAL CITIES
    宁越敏, 严重敏
    1994 (2):  119-128. 
    摘要 ( 553 )   PDF(408KB) ( 817 )  

    The central cities are the political, economic and cultural cellters of a country or a region. To make the central cities to play a key role in the national economy is one of the most important tasks in Chinese urban economic reform. This paper firstly approaches the classification of the central cities, then, the features of the development and spatial diffusion of the central cities since the 1980s. The authors think that the central cities have experienced the uneven development, and the effects of economic spread of the central cities in a different hierarchical level are also different. Particularly, the spatial economic pattern of both Jiangsu and Zhejang provinces is taking place a new division under the influence of Shanghai, the largest central city of China. In order to further make the central cities to play a role, the authors make 4 suggestions to different types of the central cities so as to strengthen the development of the central cities in the future.

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    THE APPLICABILITY OF RESEARCH ON FLOOD-DROUGHT TENDENCY-AN ANALYSIS ON DISASTROUS FLOOD OF TAIHU LAKE BASIN IN JUNE-JULY, 1991
    陈家其
    1994 (2):  129-133. 
    摘要 ( 741 )   PDF(2441KB) ( 807 )  

    In Taihu Lake basin during June-July in 1991, there happened a catastrophic flood, the precipitation reached that of 1954 and the water level was the highest in the history in Taihu Lake. This heaVy flood, happening in the relatively humid period and being well accord with flood-drought change tendency, was early precautioned.The occurrence of the flood illustrated that using records of historical climate to predict flood-dronght tendency is practically significant for hazard-reduction project.

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    MODELS OF THE SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF MULTI-PLANT ENTERPRISES
    费洪平
    1994 (2):  134-147. 
    摘要 ( 745 )   PDF(2753KB) ( 882 )  

    Since the 1970s, the studies on the geography of enterprise have become increasingly concerned with the spatial evolution of an enterprises in the West developed countries. However, little attention has so far been given to the spatial evolution of an enterprise in China. With China's ongoing economy and political reforms, a number of fundamental changes of enterprise behavior have occurred. These changes have certainly important influences on the evolution of industrial location. Therefore, there is a need for examining the spatial evolution of an enterprise in China. The purpose of the paper is to review the mapjor models of both the growth, and associated spatial evolution of an enterprise, with an illustrative case study of the HeaVy Automobile Enterprise Group of China. The paper is organized by three parts. The first examines the spoilal growth and location adjustment of multi-plant enterprise. The second reviews mapjor models of the spatial evolution of an enterprise. And the third analyzes the spatial evolution, over a period of time, of a representative sample of the Heavy Automobile Enterprise Group of China, and illustrates the findings with case studies. It is suggested that the models of spatial evolution of an enterprise would provide more evidence about micro-mechanism for evolution of micro-regional economic systems.

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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TUMEN RIVER AND THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND OF ITS HINTERLAND
    王荣芬, 李为
    1994 (2):  148-158. 
    摘要 ( 579 )   PDF(478KB) ( 771 )  

    The key of the Tumen River development is the harbour construction. The construction and development of the Tumen River harbour is closely related to the economic development and the rational productivity allocation of the whole northeast region. The Tumen River harbour will reach a handling capacity of 20-50 million tons through the construction for dozens of years. Such a large harbour (only next to Dalian Port in the northeast region) must be supported by strong hinterland. This hinterlandmust be the whole northeast region. According to the attraction of the Tumen River harbour for different areas, the hinterland may be divided into direct hinterland and mixed hinterland, and the haed hinterland can be further divided into major hinterland and common hinterland. The northeast region as the hinterland of the Tumen River harbour has the following superiorities:1) superior geographical position, 2) convenient communications conditions, 3) traditional economic connection, 4) abundant mampower resources, 5) Strong economic foundation. In order to meet the needs of the Tumen River development and the harbour construction, as well as the international division and. cooperation, the northeast region must be overall open to the outside world, speed up export-oriented economic development, be inclined to develop export industry, be engaged further in the international division of Northeast Asia region, establishing the east-west point and axis allocation system that takes Hunchun as the new growth Pole, Changchun as the center, Fangchuan-Changchun-Baicheng-Yiershi railway as the main development axis.

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    A STUDY ON MARSH EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN
    陈刚起, 吕宪国
    1994 (2):  159-167. 
    摘要 ( 893 )   PDF(2569KB) ( 741 )  

    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in northeast China. It is one of the areas where marshes are distributed concentratedly and widely in China. Carex lasiocarpa marsh and the marsh with Carex lasiocarpa as dominative species are distributed widely. We chose Carex lasiocarpa marsh as observation object in 1990 and 1991. Marsh evapotranspiration includes transpiration of marsh plants and evaporation of water surface. We used evaporimeters to observe the water level, and calculated the water level amplitude. The evapotranspiration of the marsh is one or two timeS more than the evaporation of water surface in growing season. The larger the vegetation coverage, the greater the daily evapotranspiration. When the vegetation coverage of marsh is less than 10%, the daily evapotranspiranspiration of marsh is dose to the evaporation of water surface. The difference between the evapotranspiration marsh and the evaporation of water surface in sunny days is more than that in cloudy days.

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    COMPLEX ECOLOGIC-ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF AFFORESTATION-AN EXAMPLE OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
    李孝芳
    1994 (2):  168-173. 
    摘要 ( 713 )   PDF(2420KB) ( 730 )  

    The paper deals with a transformation model of a backward distric into a prosperous one. The district is geographically located in Lixiahe region, Jiangsu Province. The region had long ben known as one of the poorest area in China, and had been alternatively attacked by flood, waterlogging, drought, salinzation, and plague of insect. Since the seventies of this centruy efforts to open up trenches on lowland and to level up the shoaly land have been made. A kind of tree, which is tolerable to high watertable, was used to afforest the land. Cereal crop, vegetable and beaus are grown. In some cases, the shoaly land is used for sheep grazing and fishery. A favorable combination of forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery has been set up in the region. There are five type of managements in the system:1) forestry-agriculture complex management. 2) forestry-fishery complex management, 3) forestry-aquatic plan-fishery complex management, 4) forestry-animal husbandry complex management, and 5) forestry-edible mushroom complex management. The principles and ecological benefits of this system can be identitied:1) Increase soil fertility by piling mud from marsh land on top soil, and thicken the arable layer. 2) Enhance the utilization rate of sunlight and energy, due to the change of microclimate in field. 3) As a result of multiple layer cultivation and multi-cropping, the production has been greatly increased. 4) Accelerate the cycling of matter and conversion of energy and nutrient of the system. 5) Decrease the consUmption of soil fertility and increase the capability of controlling insect pests. 6) Improve ecological environment by afforestationl. 7) Raise income and provide jobs for local peasants, even some ones from other part of this province.

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    THE FLORISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST IN XISHUANGBANNA
    朱华
    1994 (2):  174-185. 
    摘要 ( 632 )   PDF(2744KB) ( 815 )  

    The general floristic characteristics of the tropical rainforest of Xishuangbanna have been summarized in the present paper. The tropical rainforest is estimated to consist of more than 3,000 species of seed plant pertaining to more than l,000 genera and about 180 families.Based on the comprehensive analysis of the distribution of taxa in two representative communities of the rainforest, the deduction is given as follows:the families, genera and spotes of tropical distribution take up about 80%, 94% and more than 90% of the total of the flora separately in which the genera of tropical Asia take up 33%-42% of the total and the species of tropical Asia take up about 74% of the total. The flora is explicitly of tropicsi in nature and as a part of tropical Asian flora. Occurring at the montane habitats of northern margin of tropical SE Asia, the flora also embodies conspicuous characters of marginal tropics.Xishuangbanna is geographically a transitional area from true tropics to subtropics and an ecotone where the floristic element of Indo-Malaysia from south, the one of s Asia or S Himalayas from west, the one of Indochina-S China from southeast and the one of S China from northeast meet and overlap in their areal boundaries each other. The flora is therefore endosed with the characteristic of floristic ecotone.

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    PROFESSOR ZHU KEZHEN OPENING UP A PATH FOR RESEARCH ON CLIMATIC CHANGE IN CHINA
    施雅风
    1994 (2):  186-192. 
    摘要 ( 697 )   PDF(2498KB) ( 867 )  

    Professor Zhu Kezhen (Co-Ching Chu, 1890 1974) was an outstanding scientist and educator. His research covered three fields including meteorology, geography and history of natural science. He published about 300 papers related to these fields. The historic climatic change in China was a subject which he most intenSively studied. Eight papers related to this subject were published by Professor Zhu Kezhen from 1925 to 1972. The last brilliant paper on the title, "A Primary Study on Climatic Chang6 in Past 5000 Years in China" reconstructed the climatic change history based on temperature index, particularly on winter temperature index. He concluded that the temperature was 2℃ higher in 5,000-3,000 a B.P. than at present and temperature in January was 3-5℃ higher then. He found that, in the latest 3000 years, there were major cycles of 400-800 years with an amplitude of 1-2℃ and small cycles of 50-100 years with an amplitude of 0.5-1℃. The temperature curves of the post 5,000 years which Zhu Kezhen reconstructed in China basically alike the δ18O record from camp Century Ice Core in Greenland. He was particularly good at analysing and summarizing historic data of phenology, archeology and meteorology and compering with that at present. He also closely followed the international progress in science and technology. He considered that the study of historic climatic change was very useful to the forecast of future climatic change. His method in research and achievement opened up a new path for study of the climatic change in China.

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