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    1993年, 第3卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1993-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT-INTEGRITY AND DISPARITY,GENERALITY AND INDIVIDUALITY
    李春芬
    1993 (4):  289-296. 
    摘要 ( 672 )   PDF(2532KB) ( 773 )  

    Integrity and disparity are two of the basic characteristics implied in the scientific connotation of the physical environment as a material system. From a dialectical materialistic point of view the physical character of geographical environment of the earth surface is the unity in diversity. It is on such grounds that the two basic characteristics were put forth by the author in his monograph "Physical Structure of South American Geographical Environment" as the underlying theme. This holds true for the hierarchy of physical regions. For instance, the physical environment of the earth surface in unity behaves as a huge whole, yet, in differentiation into continents, it displays disparity; each continent differs from others and becomes an integrity in its own right. The same is true of regions of lower levels. In the case of generality and individuality of regional types and their constituent distributive areas in different continents, the same relationship exists among them. Owing to similar origin each type and its distributive areas in different continents bear the general character in common. On the other hand, each area expresses its own peculiarities, resulting from the interactions of the specific conditions of the continent in which lies the area concerned. In addition, the South American tropical west-coast desert exemplifies an observable dynamic changes of the physical structure of geographical environment from arid to humid and vice versa with the wax and wane of E1 Nino.

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    ANALYSIS OF LOCATION CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL CENTRES IN CHINA
    叶立梅, 程志刚
    1993 (4):  297-307. 
    摘要 ( 665 )   PDF(491KB) ( 959 )  

    First of all, the necessity of establishing financial centres is expounded. The establishment of financial centres has a lot of benefits to the world economic development, China's economy and the occupied cities. The location conditions of financial centres may be summarized as follows: the location of trade centre, the factors of geographical position, the circumstances of finance, etc.. We consider that the first batch of financial centres in China should be established in the eastern cities of China. So 9 eastern cities in China are chosen as the spare financial centres. According to the location conditions of financial centres, 12 indices are chosen and the method of synthetic weighted average is used to find the best locations of financial centres. The conclusions are that the grade A financial centres should be in Shanghai and the grade B should be in Tianjin and Guangzhou.

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    ZONALITY OF DISTRIBUTION OF PHYSICO-GEOGRAPHICAL ZONES IN CHINA
    蒋忠信
    1993 (4):  308-325. 
    摘要 ( 637 )   PDF(721KB) ( 721 )  

    With the methods of regression analysis and trend surface analysis, taking the bottom and top lines of dark conifer forest, bottom line of permafrost and the snowline of the latest glaciation in China as examples, this paper discusses the zonality regulaties of the distribution of physico-geographical zones in China. (1) Latitude zonality obeys the mathematical model of normal frequency distribution, being approximate to descending straightly within the latitude of China. (2) Longitude zonality shows that the elevation of physico-geographical zone rises straightly with the distance to east coast. (3) The combination of latitude and longitude zonalities appears a plane inclining from SSW to NNE. The decline of physico-geographical zone resembles a semiellipse- sphere inclining from the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau to northeast China, reflecting the effect of relief. (5) Physico-geographical zonation depends on the combination of hydrothermal conditions. Thus the factors influencing the distribution regularities of physico-geographical zones of China are latitude zone, the distribution of oceans and land and relief features.

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    ON SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHANGES OF PRESENT URBAN POPULATION IN CHINA
    李若建
    1993 (4):  326-333. 
    摘要 ( 886 )   PDF(380KB) ( 783 )  

    Since 1949, great changes have taken place in the amount and distribution of China's urban population. From the analysis on the change in total urban population, it can be learnt that urbanization progress can be controlled mainly by social-economic development and government policy through influencing the migratory growth of urban population and the number of organic cities. In the period 1949-1990, the states of megalopolises had gone up; medium-sized cities had decreased. It is estimated that the total urban population of China will still increase at a rapid speed in the coming 10 years; there will not be great changes in grade system of urban scale; and urban population may shows a tendency to move to coastal area.

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    THE CHARACTERISTIC AND CAUSE OF SEA WATER INTRUSION AND POLLUTION IN SOUTH LIAODONG PENINSULA
    刘庆书, 许劲松, 张万忠
    1993 (4):  334-347. 
    摘要 ( 680 )   PDF(614KB) ( 834 )  

    Based on various patterns of groundwater and their abundance characters in south Liaodong Peninsula, the distribution, stage, pattern and characters of sea water intrusion in the serious sea water intrusion areas are analysed. The reasons to cause sea water intrusion are uneven precipitation, limited recharge of surface water, artificial overpumping, lithology and geological structure. It can provide scientific basis for reasonable utilization of limited water resource in line with the local conditions.

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    ON THE OPENING-UP AND DEVELOPMENT OF SHANGHAIS PUDONG NEW AREA
    杨万钟
    1993 (4):  348-356. 
    摘要 ( 659 )   PDF(418KB) ( 922 )  

    In the development of Pudong, a strategic idea and goal ought to be fully realized, that is: with the development of Pudong as a lead, to further open up the cities along the Chang jiang (Yangtze) River, build Shanghai into an international center for economy, finance and trade, thus to spark a new economic take-off in the Changjiang River Delta and the whole Changjiang River Basin.To develop Pudong, the infrastructure construction must be developed first; and the development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries must be well coordinated. At present, the stress should be laid on tertiary sectors like finance, foreign trade, commerce, real estate, far-ocean transport, post and telecommunication, information and travelling service and so on. In the secondary industry, export processing and high and new technological industries should be put first, while the original raw-material industry should be improved in processing depth. As to the primary industry, a metropolitan suburban agriculture should be established.In spatial distribution, the present extension has been eastward along the Huangpu River axis. By the end of this century, five districts: Waigaoqiao-Gaoqiao, Qingningsi-Jinqiao, Lujiazui-Huamu, Zhoujiadu-Liuli and Beicai-Zhang jiang, will be developed. Meanwhile, it must be well coordinated between developing Pudong and reforming Puxi.

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    AREAL DIFFERENTIATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF OASIS AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM IN THE SHIYANG RIVER BASIN
    张维祥, 梁智睿
    1993 (4):  357-364. 
    摘要 ( 609 )   PDF(392KB) ( 783 )  

    On the basis of the study on areal differentiation of the natural environment of oasis agriculture ecosystems in the Shiyang River Basin, this paper comparatively analyzes the natural productivities, water economic benefits, production efficiency, ecological stabilities and developmental conditions of the Wuwei Oasis agricultural ecosystem in the middle reaches of the river basin and the Minqin Oasis agricultural ecosystem in the lower reaches. Under a same management level and investment of . material and energy, primary productiveness and economic benefits of the former are higher than those of the latter. Construction directions of Wuwei and Minqin oases should be different in order to alleviate the water-use contradiction between the middle and lower reaches. The construction objective of Wuwei Oasis should be efficient irrigated farming production system and Minqin Oasis should become a mixed forestry-pastoral-farming ecosystem taking ecological protection as its major function.

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    HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AND MODERN URBAN CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE LOESS PLATEAU
    王菱, 王勤学, 张如一
    1993 (4):  365-375. 
    摘要 ( 862 )   PDF(508KB) ( 797 )  

    The influence of human activities on environment and climate change is the most conspicuous problem of the Loess Plateau, and it may be divided into two aspects: firstly, the excessive utilization of land by the human race causes the destruction of vegetation, and consequently large expanse of land is under desertification and the characteristics of the ground surface and the water and heat exchange on the ground surface have changed; secondly, the use of coal by industries produces a huge amount of carbon dioxide and trace elements, which enter into the atmosphere to cause air pollution.Data of 1951-1990 are collected from 69 meteorological stations on the Loess Plateau. After analysis, the decadal variations of temperature and rainfall in the last 40 years are obtained as follows: (1) In the arid zone of the north- west of the Loess Plateau, the increase in temperature is the largest. For the past 40 years, the annual mean temperature has increased 0.7-1.0 ℃ . In the semiarid zone of the middle part of the plateau, the annual mean temperature has increased 0.1-0.5℃ , while in the subhumid zone of the southern part, temperature remains almost constant and even has a slight decrease. (2) For the past 40 years, the large and middle-sized cities have the largest temperature increase, especially the new developing cities. (3) For the past 40 years, the rainfall has decreased in the most part of the Loess Plateau.

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    ADVANCES IN MEDICO-CHEMICAL GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    王明远
    1993 (4):  376-380. 
    摘要 ( 696 )   PDF(237KB) ( 785 )  

    We have made progress in medico-chemical geography as follows: the correlative law of organism with geochemical environment; the geochemico-ecological classification of chemical elements; the types of formative cause of biogeochemical provinces in China; the parabolic correlation between contents of iodine in drinking water and prevalence rate of endemic goiter; the discovery and proof of the low selenium zone in China; the successive discovery of endemic fluorosis of the types of pollution from burning coal, drinking high fluoride tea and high fluoride table salt from the year 1978; the study on chemical geography of schistosomiasis and the compilation of the Atlas of Endemic Diseases and Their Environments in the People's Republic of China.

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    THE GREAT ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH ON ANCIENT LIMNOLOGY BY CHINA AND U.S.A.
    郭廷彬
    1993 (4):  381-382. 
    摘要 ( 582 )   PDF(135KB) ( 914 )  

    "The study of plateau lake's ancient limnology in lime stone region of central Yunnan" is a program subsidized by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, practiced by Song Xueliang in Yunnan Institute of Geology. After the program had been authorized, in order to have the program carried out successfully, the National Natural Science Foundation of China subsidized the researchers to cooperate with relative American institutes.

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