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    1992年, 第2卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1992-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    LAST GLACIATION AND MAXIMUM GLACIATION IN THE QINGHAI-XIZANG(TIBET)PLATEAU:A CONTROVERSY TO M. KUHLE, S ICE SHEET HYPOTHESIS
    施雅风, 郑本兴, 李士杰
    1992 (4):  293-311. 
    摘要 ( 620 )   PDF(3319KB) ( 940 )  

    Since the late 1950's, many Chinese scientists have explored the remains of the Quaternary glaciation in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and its surrounding mountains. In the main, 3-4 glaciations have been recognized. The largest one occurred in the Late Middle Pleistocene with piedmont glaciers, ice caps and trellis valley glaciers in many high peak regions. But here is no evidence of a unified ice sheet covering the whole plateau as described by M. Kuhle. Due to the further uplifting of the Himalayas and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau the climate became progressively drier, diminishing the extension of glaciers during the Late Pleistocene. The elevation of the snow line during the Last Glaciation was about 4,000 m on the south, east and northeast edges of the plateau and ascended to 5500 m on the hinder northwest of the plateau. The thermal effect of the big plateau massif, the sharp increase of aridity from the southeast rim to the northwest inland area and the abrupt decrease of precipitation during the Ice Age largely account for the distribution of the Quaternary glaciers in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The neglect of Chinese literature may be one of the causes accounting for M. Kuhle's misinterpretation on the environment of the Quaternary glaciations in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.

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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION IN CHINA
    张兰生
    1992 (4):  312-321. 
    摘要 ( 611 )   PDF(2474KB) ( 699 )  

    Recent achievements of the research on Chinese environmental evolution are brieny summarized in this paper. Following aspects are touched upon: relationship between Chinese environmental evolution and global change, the influence of the swift uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, time sequence and the reconstruction of environment in characteristic stages, trend towards dryness in north and northwestern China, sea level change and regional studies.

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    POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIAL POPULATION IN CHINA
    杨金星, 贾秀嵩
    1992 (4):  322-328. 
    摘要 ( 592 )   PDF(318KB) ( 787 )  

    This paper inquires firstly into the influence of environmental potential population on population movements in China. We think that there are intimate relationships between the changes of the environmental potential population and the population movements: from southeast to northwest, from the coastland to the borderland in the early 30 years of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the reversion of direction of population movements in recent ten years. Then we come to the conclusion that it has been inappropriate for a large-scale population movement of reclaiming and cultivating wasteland, because the actual population has universally surpassed the environmental potential population in most areas of China. But it is still appropriate and necessary for these movements, such as intelligence or science migration of population, limited population movement within the area of some provinces, population concentration on small towns and temporary fluidity of population.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE EASTERN CHINA DURING THE LATE PLEISTOCENE
    杨达源, 冯文科, 赵希涛
    1992 (4):  329-336. 
    摘要 ( 1107 )   PDF(2409KB) ( 817 )  

    The environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene were more obvious in the eastern China than in other areas at the same latitude, which either between northern and southern, or between land and sea of the eastern China were mostly non-synchronous. The transitional period prior to the last glaciation came about in the northern part of the eastern China about 115,000 yr. ago. The desert environments of the inland of the north China were developed both in the glacial maximum and in the warm interglacial period, but the loess accumulation mostly took place during the glacial period. The sand dunes and the periglacial solifluctions in the lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River region were formed during the last glacial period. The event of lowest surface temperature occurred at 98,000 yr. B.P. and 59,000 yr. B.P. in the northern part of the South China Sea but not during the full-glacial stage. The phenomena mentioned . above were the result of the following reasons that the paleo-environmental changes in the eastern China were controlled by the common factors leading to the changes of global environment, on the other hand, the different changes were related to the particular of East Asia as well as a time lag required by the adjusting process of varied changes themselves.

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    TECHNIQUES OF CONSTRUCTING REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES: ACHIEVEMENTS
    金玉献, Christine M Leigh
    1992 (4):  337-356. 
    摘要 ( 740 )   PDF(839KB) ( 836 )  

    The development of any analytical method should have to experience at least four stages: its initial status, growth, mature and declining. However, although the regional input-output analysis has been widely applied for more than forty years, it is still one of the most important approach in regional economic analysis and forecast at present in the world. This is due to the never ended modifications and its great potentials. In this paper, we review the historical development of the regional input-output analysis.

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    BACKGROUND VALUES AND TREND DISTRIBUTION OF Cu, Zn AND Ni IN SOILS IN CHINA
    王景华
    1992 (4):  357-366. 
    摘要 ( 757 )   PDF(2535KB) ( 787 )  

    The background values of Cu, Zn and Ni are discussed based on the analytical data of 21 main soil types collected from various regions in China. According to statistics of many samples, the background value of Cu is 23.4±10.2 mg/ kg (482 samples), Zn 77.9±2.39 mg/ kg (474 samples), Ni 30.0±12.8 mg/kg (482 samples).

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    GRADATION AND ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGE DEGREE OF NATURAL LANDSCAPE IN XING, AN COUNTY, GUANGXI
    李家永, 李昌华
    1992 (4):  367-372. 
    摘要 ( 714 )   PDF(236KB) ( 710 )  

    A new technique designed to help quantify the degree of damage to the landscape from one area to another shows a close relationship between population density and the degree of landscape damage. The technique establishes a scale of damage from 0 to 5 (zero = no damage; 5 = severe damage) using data from aerial photographs, land-use maps, and field data. The related formula allows one to compare the relative degree of damage across regions using a combination of an absolute index, a theoretical index, a relative index, and population density. Xing'an County is used to demonstrate the technique.

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    MIXING OF SALT WATER AND FRESH WATER IN THE CHANGJIANG RIVER ESTUARY AND ITS EFFECTS ON SUSPENDED SEDIMENT
    沈焕庭, 张重乐
    1992 (4):  373-381. 
    摘要 ( 874 )   PDF(2545KB) ( 836 )  

    Using field hydrological data, the relationship between the mixing of salt water and fresh water and the tidal range/ high tidal level in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary is discussed, and the transporting and concentrating of suspended sediment in the estuary were also analysed in respect to the circulation, flocculation and stratified interface resulting from mixing.The calculation results by two-dimentional box model have confirmed the effects of the circulation on the concentrating of suspended sediment in the estuary. The conclusions derived from this work have deepened the understanding on the mixing in the Changjiang River estuary and are of significance in bo'th theory and practice.

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    THE DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE MOVEMENT OF CIVILIZATION CENTER IN CHINA
    孔繁德
    1992 (4):  382-388. 
    摘要 ( 726 )   PDF(2353KB) ( 904 )  

    China is one of the ancient civilization countries. Owing to the blind reclamation, the vegetation had been destroyed, causing soil erosion and desertification, and making the civilization center move to the Changjiang (Yangtze) River valley from the Huanghe (Yellow) River. This movement began in the Qin and Han dynasties (221 B.C-220 A.D.) because at that time the large-scale reclamation was felled, the grassland was reclaimed into farmland, the vegetation was seriously destroyed in the loess and north of the Huanghe River, and the climate was getting colder; and the turn from north to south occurred in the Sui and Tang dynasties (581-907 A.D.) and completed in the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.). However, at present the vegetation damage of the Changjiang River valley is very serious too and the silt carrying capacity of the Changjiang River is increasing sharply; thus the Changjiang River is in danger of becoming a second Huanghe River, so we must pay attention to the protection of ecological environment.

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