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    1991年, 第1卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1991-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    THE EXPERIENCES AND MODELS OF LAND RESOURCES USE IN CHINA
    孙鸿烈, 胡鞍钢, 傅伯杰
    1991 (4):  293-305. 
    摘要 ( 989 )   PDF(547KB) ( 881 )  

    This paper introduces the experiences and models of land resources use in China. They are: (1) to protect farmland is as the basic state policy; (2) to carry out land resources survey and land use planning; (3) establishing a resource-saving agricultural production system with land saving as its priority; (4) to develop agriculture in the whole territory and explore food resources; (5) improving eco-environment and protecting land resources; (6) population control'and moderate consumption to release the pressure on land resources; (7) the integrated development and experiment of the typical regions.

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    STUDIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND VALUES IN CHINA
    缪天成, 王惠琪, 郑春江
    1991 (4):  306-315. 
    摘要 ( 863 )   PDF(2467KB) ( 893 )  

    An investigation on environmental background values was made in an area of about 1,140,000 km2, which included temperate and subtropical zones of China. The environmental background values of 142 soil environment units, 18 main soil types, 87 surface water environment units, 8 aquatic organism environment units and 20 underground water environment units were obtained. The rules, causes and effecting factors of regional differentiation of the environmental background values were deduced from over 200,000 various data.

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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INLAND LAKES EVOLUTION AND CLIMATIC FLUCTUATION IN ARID ZONE
    秦伯强, 施雅风, 王苏民
    1991 (4):  316-323. 
    摘要 ( 600 )   PDF(2454KB) ( 904 )  

    The evolution of the inland lakes in arid and semi-arid zones is accorded with the climatic fluctuation. The humid climate is in harmony with the higher water level and greater lake water quantity budget while arid climate is in correspondence with the lower water level and little water budget. Based on the analysis of the lake fluctuation and lake budget change, with the aid of the data of geom'orphology, palynology, sedimentology and chronology, It is found that the climate experienced a warm and humid period during 7000-3500 yr. B. P. and showed a drying and warming trend in the last century in the Central Asia.

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    GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS IN CHINA
    陈国阶
    1991 (4):  324-336. 
    摘要 ( 713 )   PDF(2689KB) ( 852 )  

    Endemic fluorosis is given rise to by human intake of excess fluorine from environment by way of food chain. In China it is one of the extensively prevalent endemic diseases and its distribution shows clearly regional characteristics. In macroscopic sight, three large fluorosis zones may be divided: (1) The arid and semi-arid plains in the north of China. These regions have a dry climate, making fluorine accumulation in the Quaternary deposits. Thus, the drinking water with high content of fluorine is the main cause of the disease formation. (2) The Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. In the region, rocks and soils rich in fluorine bring about fluorine excess in crop food. This plays an important role in the disease formation. (3) Southeast hills. The hot spring with high content of fluorine leads to fluorosis.The fluorine absorbed by people from the environment is firstly from the drinking water and secondly from the crop food originating from soil. The fluorine in the air can be accumulated in crop leaves to make an impact on people.

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    ANALYSIS OF LAND BRIDGE TRANSPORTATION
    祁勇, 王雁
    1991 (4):  337-346. 
    摘要 ( 678 )   PDF(428KB) ( 893 )  

    Land bridge transportation means transportation from one seaport to another by railway across continents instead of by ocean ship. At present, there are two common routes for using land bridge transportation in the world. One is Asia-America-Europe land bridge, the other is Europe-Asia land bridge.Eurasia land bridge has obvious advantages over Asia-America-Europe land bridge due to its shorter distance, shorter transportation time and special freight rate. China started Eurasia land bridge transportation business in 1980. It mainly used the mode of railway-railway combined transportation. The comparison between using Eurasia land bridge and using shipping transportation from China to Northern and Western Europe shows that Euraria land bridge transportation can save time and get foreign exchange in time, and commodity turnover will be speeded up. According to the port layout and railway network structure, China's land bridge transportation projects are proposed. They are Suifenhe project, Dalian project, Tianjin project and Lianyungang project. The comparison of the four projects reveals that regarding to the total distance, Tianjin project is the shortest, but the distance covering China is shorter, and the transportation capacity of Beijing-Tianjin section is low. Lianyungang project has better geographical position and large attactive scope. The distance within China is the longest, but now there is 463 km of railway which have not been completed, and the transportation capacity is limited by Lanzhou-Xinjiang and Lianyungang-Lanzhou railway lines. From a long-term point of view, this project has a bright future.

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    RADIATION BALANCE AND MICROCLIMATIC FEATURES OF MARSH IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN
    刘兴土
    1991 (4):  347-358. 
    摘要 ( 675 )   PDF(2632KB) ( 844 )  

    Radiation balance, soil temperature and the temperature and humidity of air were measured in marshes and reclaimed farmlands of the Sanjing Plain. Soil-heat flux was calculated with two different methods. Through the analysis of a lot of data, the daily variations and the law of vertical distribution of microclimate factors on marsh surface was obtained. It is found that after marshes are reclaimed, radiation balance increases, both soil temperature at different depths and air temperature of various height near ground layer rise, and air humidity decreases obviously. Therefore, one should take the establishment of artificial ecosystem of growing paddy and reed and breeding fish as the main development direction of marshes, at the same time, protect some marshes in order to prevent the environment from getting dry, and maintain regional ecological balance.

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    CHANGING FEATURES AND TREND OF LIGHT INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTION IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    李为, 曲丽霞
    1991 (4):  359-369. 
    摘要 ( 622 )   PDF(451KB) ( 734 )  

    Modern industry in northeast China started from light industry. From the end of 19th century to 1931 was the phase of initial development of light industry in northeast China. During this period, the development of light industry gave priority to grain processing industry. After occupying northeast China, Japanese vigorously developed heavy industry to meet the needs of munitions and paid more attention to raw materials and semi-finished articles industry for the purpose of the war. Light industry was impeded and developed slowly. After the founding of New China, large-scale economic construction took place in northeast and heavy industry received prior investment and equipment. Northeast region became the first heavy industry base through several five-year plans, the development of light industry made giant strides. The present features of light industry distribution are: difference of light industry distribution, similarity of light industry structure, and imbalance of light industry development. The changing trend of light industry distribution is pointed out.

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    LOESS IN THE LONGXI BASIN OF GANSU PROVINCE
    文启忠, 郑洪汉, 韩家懋, 王俊达, 林绍孟, 乔玉楼, 魏兰英, 刁桂仪
    1991 (4):  370-380. 
    摘要 ( 870 )   PDF(2564KB) ( 724 )  

    The Nuanquangou loess section in the Longxi Basin has been examined in terms of stratigraphic investigation,. including 14C dating, paleomagnetic polarity, spore-pollen diagram, and mineral and chemical analyses. The results indicate that the section is one of the ancient loess sections with a continuous sedimentation and composed of homogeneous materials with abundant carbonate. The Brunhes / Matuyama boundary and the Jaramillo event were recorded in the section. Stratigraphically,this section can be divided into the Holocene and the Pleistocene loess. The latter includes Malan, Lishi and Wucheng loess in descending order. They were developed at about 1.2 Ma ago, whereas the Nuanquangou loess section possesses some local characteristics different from those observed in other areas.

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