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    Fourth Industrial Revolution: Technological Drivers, Impacts and Coping Methods
    LI Guoping, HOU Yun, WU Aizhi
    中国地理科学    2017, 27 (4): 626-637.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-017-0890-x
    摘要312)      PDF (213KB)(4567)   

    The world is marching into a new development period when the digital technology, physical technology, and biological technology have achieved an unprecedented development respectively in their own fields, and at the same time their applications are converging greatly. These are the three major technological drivers for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This paper discusses the specific technology niches of each kind technological driver behind the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and then evaluates impacts of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on global industrial, economic, and social development. At last this paper proposes possible measures and policies for both firms and governments to cope with the changes brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

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    Roles and Functions of Tourism Destinations in Tourism Region of South Anhui: A Tourist Flow Network Perspective
    LIU Fajian, ZHANG Jinhe, ZHANG Jie, CHEN Dongdong, LIU Zehua, LU Song
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2012, 22 (6): 755-764.  
    摘要701)      PDF (1167KB)(3931)   

    Theoretic and practical significance has been highlighted in the research of the roles and functions of destinations, as destinations are restricted by the spatial structure based on tourist flow network from the perspective of relationship. This article conducted an empirical analysis for Tourism Region of South Anhui (TRSA) and revealed the necessity and feasibility of studying the roles and functions of destinations from tourist flow network′s perspective. The automorphic equivalence analysis and centrality analysis were used to classify 16 destinations in TRSA into six role types: tourist flow distribution center, hub of tourist flows, passageway destination, common touring destination, attached touring destination, and nearly isolated destination. Some suggestions were given on suitable infrastructure construction and destinations service designs according to their functions in network. This destination role positioning was based on tourist flow network structure in integral and macroscopic way. It provided an important reference for the balanced and harmonious development of all the destinations of TRSA. In addition, this article verified the applicability of social network analysis on tourist flow research in local scale, and expanded this method to destination role and function positioning.

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    Review of Shadow Detection and De-shadowing Methods in Remote Sensing
    AmirReza Shahtahmassebi, Yang Ning, WANG Ke, Nathan Moore, SHEN Zhangquan
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2013, 23 (4): 403-420.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-013-0613-x
    摘要3259)   HTML1)    PDF (1003KB)(5676)   

    Shadow is one of the major problems in remotely sensed imagery which hampers the accuracy of information extraction and change detection. In these images, shadow is generally produced by different objects, namely, cloud, mountain and urban materials. The shadow correction process consists of two steps: detection and de-shadowing. This paper reviews a range of techniques for both steps, focusing on urban regions (urban shadows), mountainous areas (topographic shadow), cloud shadows and composite shadows. Several issues including the problems and the advantages of those algorithms are discussed. In recent years, thresholding and recovery techniques have become important for shadow detection and de-shadowing, respectively. Research on shadow correction is still an important topic, particularly for urban regions (in high spatial resolution data) and mountainous forest (in high and medium spatial resolution data). Moreover, new algorithms are needed for shadow correction, especially given the advent of new satellite images.

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    THE EVOLUTION OF SETTLEMENT LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN URBAN RURAL INTEGRATION
    廖荣华, 陈湘满
    中国地理科学(英文版)    1998, 8 (1): 67-73.  
    摘要781)      PDF (343KB)(3720)   

    The urban rural integration is an inevitable outcome of regional economic development in a certain stage and is objectively exhibited as the evolution of settlement location and distribution, that is, the turning from spot distribution to area distribution of the settlement in developed areas, while in less developed areas, from spot distribution to linear distribution. The evolution of the settlement location and distribution is an inevitable result of economic development in the urban rural integration, which is restricted by factors affecting economic development, on the other hand, it is also an important factor affecting and restricting economic development. In the process of the urban rural integration, modern transportation orientation, modern market orientation, modern industrial orientation and modern population orientation are important motive force, and influence the basic pattern of the settlement location and distribution, which plays a speeding or delaying role in regional economic development.

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    Globalization of Tourism and Third World Tourism Development——A Political Economy Perspective
    ZHAO Weibing, LI Xingqun
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2006, 16 (3): 203-210.  
    摘要1245)      PDF (89KB)(4359)   

    Globalization, which is characterized by the escalating mobility of capital, people, ideas and information on a universal scale, has become a sweeping theme in the contemporary world. Tourism and its associated economic activities are evidently not immune to such a wider context of the world economy. In the past one or two decades, a stable increase has been witnessed in international tourist flows, inter-regional and inter-organizational alliances, and foreign direct investment. These trends are especially prevalent in the developing world, largely because of their pristine nature, diverse culture, inexpensive goods and services, cheap labours, and other resources. However, it has been cautioned by some scholars, especially those from the Third World countries, that tourism is an industry run by and for the rich, more powerful nations and their corresponding multinational corporations. This article, from the perspective of political economy, supplemented with views from development studies, made a normative analysis on the impacts of the globalization of tourism on the Third World destination countries. Specifically, these impacts have been detailed in terms of economic, sociocultural, and ecological domains. It was demonstrated that without appropriate planning and management, the costs of Third World tourism development may accrue to the extent that its benefits are burned out. To avoid this happening, some suggestions have been made.

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    Hub-and-Spoke System in Air Transportation and Its Implications to Regional Economic Development——A Case Study of United States
    SONG Wei, MA Yanji
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2006, 16 (3): 211-216.  
    摘要1254)      PDF (73KB)(6464)   

    Considerable changes have taken place in commercial passenger air transport since the enactment of the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act in the US and the deregulation of airline networks that has occurred elsewhere. The commercial and operational freedoms have led most of the larger carriers to develop hub-and-spoke networks, within which certain cities or metropolitan areas emerge as key nodes possessing tremendous advantages over other locations in the air transport system. This paper examines the nature of hub-and-spoke operations in air transportation services, and the benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to an airline hub. In particular, it looks into linkages between the air service hub and local economic development. Four potential types of impact of airports on the regional economy are defined and discussed. As an example, the assessment of the economic impacts of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), a major Delta Airlines hub, is introduced.

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    Effects of Crude Oil Contamination on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Momoge Wetland of China
    WANG Ying, FENG Jiang, LIN Qianxin, LYU Xianguo, WANG Xiaoyu, WANG Guoping
    中国地理科学    2013, 23 (6): 708-715.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-013-0641-6
    摘要316)   HTML1)    PDF (571KB)(2372)   

    Large oilfields are often coincidentally located in major river deltas and wetlands, and potentially damage the structure, function and ecosystem service values of wetlands during oil exploration. In the present study, the effects of crude oil contamination during oil exploration on soil physical and chemical properties were investigated in marshes of the Momoge National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province, China. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the marsh soil near the oil wells are significantly higher than those in the adjacent control marsh. Soil water contents in oil-contaminated marshes are negatively correlated with soil temperature and are significantly lower than those in the control area, especially in fall. Crude oil contamination significantly increases the soil pH up to 8.0, and reduces available phosphorus concentrations in the soil. The concentrations of total organic carbon are significantly different among sampling sites. Therefore, crude oil contamination could potentially alkalinize marsh soils, adversely affect soil fertility and physical proper-ties, and cause deterioration of the marshes in the Momoge National Nature Reserve. Phyto-remediation by planting Calamagrostis angustifolia has the potential to simultaneously restore and remediate the petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated wetlands. Crude oil contamination affects the soil physical and chemical properties, so developing an effective restoration program in the Momoge wetland is neccesary.

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    Regional Sustainable Assessment at City Level Based on CSDIS (China Sustainable Development Indicator System) Concept in the New Era, China
    WEI Jianfei, DING Zhiwei, MENG Yiwei, LI Qiang
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 976-992.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1158-4
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要112)      PDF (13098KB)(479)   
    The core issue of sustainable development refers to the coordinated development of economic-social-environmental issues. In the present study, by complying with the China Sustainable Development Indicator System (CSDIS) concept, a comprehensive index system was built; besides, Natural Breaks (Jenks) Classification Method, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis and Geographic Detector Analysis were conducted to delve into the sustainability and coordinated degree at city level in China from 2007 to 2017. The achieved results are presented as follows. First, for spatial differentiation, the overall spatial distribution pattern was characterized by the high-value units in eastern China and the low-value units in western China from 2007 to 2017. To be specific, the high-value units were radiated along the Beijing-Guangdong Axis (Jing-Guang Axis) centered on the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the middle-value units were distributed in strips along the coast, and the low-value units were vastly gathered in western China and gradually break via the Hu Huanyong line (Hu Line) in south China from 2007 to 2017. More specifically, based on the five subsystems, the pattern of each system was consistent with the whole, whereas the degree of concentration was different. Second, for spatial correlation, the significant High-High (HH) areas were primarily distributed in the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions. The significant Low-Low (LL) areas were continuously distributed in the southwest China and broke through the Hu Line from 2007 to 2017. There were insufficient number of significant High-Low (HL) and significant Low-High (LH) areas, whereas the spatial agglomeration of them was less obvious. Third, for internal coupling coordination, the spatial differentiation between the coupling degree and the coupling coordinated degree was significantly consistent in 2007 and 2017. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions have demonstrated a high level of coordinated evolution, and the pattern of western mountainous areas exhibited a low degree of coordinated growth. Lastly, based on the combination of quantitative and qualitative, its factors were underpinned by robust economic strength, the vitality support of the information level and the basic support function of the topography, active guidance of national policies and path dependence and industrial transfer.
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    Estimation and Spatio-temporal Patterns of Carbon Emissions from Grassland Fires in Inner Mongolia, China
    YU Shan, JIANG Li, DU Wala, ZHAO Jianjun, ZHANG Hongyan, ZHANG Qiaofeng, LIU Huijuan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (4): 572-587.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1134-z
    摘要120)      PDF (6122KB)(707)   
    Grassland fires results in carbon emissions, which directly affects the carbon cycle of ecosystems and the carbon balance. The grassland area of Inner Mongolia accounts for 22% of the total grassland area in China, and many fires occur in the area every year. However, there are few models for estimation of carbon emissions from grassland fires. Accurate estimation of direct carbon emissions from grassland fires is critical to quantifying the contribution of grassland fires to the regional balance of atmospheric carbon. In this study, the regression equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) of grassland in growing season and MODIS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) were established through field experiments, then AGB during Nov.-Apr. were retrieved based on that in Oct. and decline rate, finally surface fuel load was obtained for whole year. Based on controlled combustion experiments of different grassland types in Inner Mongolia, the carbon emission rate of grassland fires for each grassland type were determined, then carbon emission was estimated using proposed method and carbon emission rate. Results revealed that annual average surface fuel load of grasslands in Inner Mongolia during 2000-2016 was approximately 1.1978×1012 kg. The total area of grassland which was burned in the Inner Mongolia region over the 17-year period was 5298.75 km2, with the annual average area of 311.69 km2. The spatial distribution of grassland surface fuel loads is characterized by decreasing from northeast to southwest in Inner Mongolia. The total carbon emissions from grassland fires amounted to 2.24×107 kg with an annual average of 1.32×106 for the study area. The areas with most carbon emissions were mainly concentrated in Old Barag Banner and New Barag Right Banner and on the right side of the Oroqin Autonomous Banner. The spatial characteristics of carbon emission depend on the location of grassland fire, mainly in the northeast of Inner Mongolia include Hulunbuir City, Hinggan League, Xilin Gol League and Ulanqab City. The area and spatial location of grassland fires can directly affect the total amount and spatial distribution of carbon emissions. This study provides a reference for estimating carbon emissions from steppe fires. The model and framework for estimation of carbon emissions from grassland fires established can provide a reference value for estimation of carbon emissions from grassland fires in other regions.
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    Water Cooperation Priorities in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin Based on Cooperative Events Since the Mekong River Commission Establishment
    FENG Yan, WANG Wenling, SUMAN Daniel, YU Shiwei, HE Daming
    中国地理科学    2019, 20 (1): 58-69.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-019-1016-4
    摘要146)      PDF (366KB)(984)   

    The Lancang-Mekong River has attracted much attention from researchers, but the cooperation on water issues in this river basin has been limited, even after the establishment of the Mekong River Commission (MRC). Cooperation on water resources has been determined as one of the key priority areas in the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Mechanism, but there are no details of targets. In order to establish the priorities of water cooperation under the mechanism, we adopted nine categories to classify the objectives of 87 water cooperation events based on the ‘Lancang-Mekong Water Cooperative Events Database’ from 1995 to 2015. Based on the occurrence of cooperative events, cooperative objectives, cooperative scales, and approaches to cooperation, we conducted statistical, correlation, and text analyses. Our analyses indicated the following results:under the impact of economic conditions inside and outside the river basin, full cooperation appeared more difficult than bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Each of the partners adopted different preferences for cooperation targets. Cooperation with more definite objectives was easier to establish than cooperation with broader and more complex objectives. The potential objectives for water cooperation were navigation, hydropower, joint management, data sharing, flood control and water use. Because hydropower development is controversial, and because water cooperation is avoided by most existing regional cooperation mechanisms due to its complexity, we suggest the following priority areas for water cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin. 1) Navigation and flood control/drought relief are attractive objectives for all the riparian countries across the whole watershed. 2) Data sharing should be a priority for cooperation in the watershed due to its laying the foundation for the equitable and reasonable utilization of transboundary waters. 3) Hydropower is an objective best implemented mainly through bilateral cooperation, and on tributaries.

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    A Synthesizing Land-cover Classification Method Based on Google Earth Engine: A Case Study in Nzhelele and Levhuvu Catchments, South Africa
    ZENG Hongwei, WU Bingfang, WANG Shuai, MUSAKWA Walter, TIAN Fuyou, MASHIMBYE Zama Eric, POONA Nitesh, SYNDEY Mavengahama
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (3): 397-409.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1119-y
    摘要297)      PDF (3308KB)(795)   
    This study designed an approach to derive land-cover in the South Africa with insufficient ground samples, and made a case demonstration in Nzhelele and Levhuvu catchments, South Africa. The method was developed based on an integration of Landsat 8, Sentinel-1, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. Random forest classifier with 300 trees is employed as land-cover classification model. In order to overcome the defect of insufficient ground data, the stratified sampling method was used to generate the training and validation samples from the existing land-cover product. Likewise, in order to recognize different land-cover categories, the percentile and monthly median composites were employed to expand input metrics of random forest classifier. Results showed that the overall accuracy of the land-cover of Nzhelele and Levhuvu catchments, South Africa in 2017-2018 reached to 76.43%. Three important results can be drawn from our research. 1) The participation of Sentinel-1 data can slightly improve overall accuracy of land-cover while its contribution on land-cover classification varied with land types. 2) Under-fitting problem was observed in the training of non-dominant land-cover categories using the random sampling, the stratified sampling method is recommended to make sure the classification accuracy of non-dominant classes. 3) When related reflectance bands participated in the training process, individual Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) have little effect on final land-cover classification result.
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    Urban Expansion in China Based on Remote Sensing Technology: A Review
    ZHANG Zengxiang, LIU Fang, ZHAO Xiaoli, WANG Xiao, SHI Lifeng, XU Jinyong, YU Sisi, WEN Qingke, ZUO Lijun, YI Ling, HU Shunguang, LIU Bin
    中国地理科学    2018, 28 (5): 727-743.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-018-0988-9
    摘要253)      PDF (2444KB)(1133)   

    Urban areas and its evolution are important anthropogenic indicators and human ecological footprints, and play decisive roles in environmental change analysis, global geo-conditional monitoring, and sustainable development. China has the highest rate of urban expansion and has emerged as an urban expansion hotspot worldwide. In this paper, the progress of studies on Chinese urban expansion based on remote sensing technology are summarized and analyzed from the aspects of urban area definition, remotely sensed imagery applied in urban expansion, monitoring methods of urban expansion, and urban expansion applications. Existing issues and future direc-tions of Chinese urban expansion are discussed and proposed. Results indicate that:1) The fusion of multi-source remotely sensed imagery is imperative to meet the needs of urban expansion with various monitoring terms and frequencies on different scales and dimensions. 2) To guarantee the classification accuracy and efficiency and describe urban expansion and its influences on local land use simultaneously, the combination of visual interpretation and automatic classification is the tendency of future monitoring methods of urban areas. 3) Urban expansion data have become the prerequisite for recognizing the urban development process, excavating its driving forces, simulating and predicting the future development directions, and also is conducive to revealing and explaining urban ecological and environmental issues. 4) In the past decades, Chinese scholars have promoted the application of remote sensing technology in the urban expansion field, with data construction, methods and models developing from the quotation stage to improvement and innovation stage; however, an independent and consistent urban expansion data on the national scale with long-term and high-frequency (such as annual monitoring) monitoring is still lacking.

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    Transport Accessibility and Spatial Connections of Cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    CAO Xiaoshu, OUYANG Shishu, YANG Wenyue, LUO Yi, LI Baochao, LIU Dan
    中国地理科学    2019, 20 (5): 820-833.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-019-1034-2
    摘要162)      PDF (6142KB)(904)   

    Based on geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis technology, the spatial pattern of raster grid transport accessibility for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area was studied and the states of spatial connectedness were simulated using highway passenger transport, railway passenger transport, port passenger transport and aviation passenger transport data. The result shows that transport accessibility within the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area costs ‘one hour’ and the spatial distribution of accessibility in the area presents clear ‘core-periphery’ spatial characteristics, with Guangzhou, Foshan, Shenzhen constituting the core. The transport accessibility of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao is high. Average accessibility of urban nodes as measured by travel time is 0.99 h, and the areas accessible within 1.42 h occupy 79.14% of the total area. Most of the areas with the lowest accessibility are found in the peripheral area, with the worst accessibility being 4.73 h. Compared with the west-side cities, the economically developed east-side cities of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area have higher connectivity with roads, railways, ports, and aviation transport. Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macao are closely linked. The higher the accessibility, the closer the intercity connectedness.

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    Effect of Hydrological Connectivity on Soil Carbon Storage in the Yellow River Delta Wetlands of China
    FENG Jiuge, LIANG Jinfeng, LI Qianwei, ZHANG Xiaoya, YUE Yi, GAO Junqin
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 197-208.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1185-9
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要154)      PDF (2816KB)(350)   
    Hydrological connectivity has significant effects on the functions of estuarine wetland ecosystem. This study aimed to examine the dynamics of hydrological connectivity and its impact on soil carbon pool in the Yellow River Delta, China. We calculated the hydrological connectivity based on the hydraulic resistance and graph theory, and measured soil total carbon and organic carbon under four different hydrological connectivity gradients (Ⅰ 0?0.03, Ⅱ 0.03?0.06, Ⅲ 0.06?0.12, Ⅳ 0.12?0.39). The results showed that hydrological connectivity increased in the north shore of the Yellow River and the south tidal flat from 2007 to 2018, which concentrated in the mainstream of the Yellow River and the tidal creek. High hydrological connectivity was maintained in the wetland restoration area. The soil total carbon storage and organic carbon storage significantly increased with increasing hydrological connectivity from Ⅰ to Ⅲ gradient and decreased in Ⅳ gradient. The highest soil total carbon storage of 0?30 cm depth was 5172.34 g/m2, and organic carbon storage 2764.31 g/m2 in Ⅲ gradient. The hydrological connectivity changed with temporal and spatial change during 2007?2018 and had a noticeable impact on soil carbon storage in the Yellow River Delta. The results indicated that appropriate hydrological connectivity, i.e. 0.08, could effectively promote soil carbon storage.
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    URBAN TOURISM RESEARCH METHODOLOGY——A Case Study of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Area
    TAO Wei, ZHONG Wen-hui, HONG Yan
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2005, 15 (2): 173-178.  
    摘要1355)      PDF (572KB)(6965)   

    This paper tries to apply a new and more comprehensive method to urban tourism research in an expanded field instead of only partially, unilaterally and separately focusing on the city itself. Taking the urban tourism of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao as an example, it aims at presenting a new spatial system of urban tourism research and pointing out the new orientation of urban tourism research in combination of macro level and micro level, from description to explanation. The meanings of the spatial framework construction for urban tourism study are to make clear how urban tourism studies vary with the changes of dimensions of time and space. This is a meaningful discussion because it will bring great changes to the using of literatures, the opening of research perspectives on urban tourism and the upgrading of theories, so as to create a new stage for urban tourism study.

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    Spatial Patterns of LULC and Driving Forces in the Transnational Area of Tumen River: A Comparative Analysis of the Sub-regions of China, the DPRK, and Russia
    NAN Ying, WANG Bingbing, ZHANG Da, LIU Zhifeng, QI Dekang, ZHOU Haohao
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (4): 588-599.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1136-x
    摘要134)      PDF (3033KB)(615)   
    Understanding the spatial patterns of land-use and land-cover (LULC) and their driving forces in transnational areas is important for the sustainable development of these regions. However, the spatial patterns of LULC and their driving forces across multiple scales are poorly understood in transnational areas. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns of LULC and driving forces in the transnational area of Tumen River (TATR) in 2016 across two scales: the entire region and the sub-regions of China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and Russia. Results showed that the LULC was dominated by broadleaf forest and dry farmland in the TATR in 2016, which accounted for 66.86% and 13.60% of the entire region, respectively. Meanwhile, the LULC in the three sub-regions exhibited noticeable differences. In the Chinese and the DPRK’s sub-regions, the area of broadleaf forest was greater than those for the other LULC types, while the Russian sub-region was dominated by broadleaf forest and grassland. The spatial patterns of LULC were mainly influenced by topography, climate, soil properties, and human activities. In addition, the driving forces of the spatial patterns of LULC in the TATR had an obvious scaling effect. Therefore, we suggest that effective policies and regulations with cooperation among China, the DPRK, and Russia are needed to plan the spatial patterns of LULC and improve the sustainable development of the TATR.
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    China's Urbanization in 1949-2015:Processes and Driving Forces
    GU Chaolin, HU Lingqian, Ian G. COOK
    中国地理科学    2017, 27 (6): 847-859.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-017-0911-9
    摘要510)      PDF (714KB)(3241)   

    The pace and scale of China's contemporary urbanization are stunning. This paper reviews process and the underlying driving forces of China's urbanization between 1949-2015. Contemporary China's urbanization has experienced four stages, and each has had different driving forces:1) economic re-construction and industrialization-led urbanization (1949-1977); 2) economic reform and market-led urbanization (1978-1995); 3) economic globalization and the global-local urbanization (1996-2010); and 4) the land-economyled urbanization (2010-). These urbanization processes and driving forces will undoubtedly provide scientific reference and have significant implications for developing countries, especially African countries, to formulate their urbanization public policies.

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    Responses of Alpine Wetlands to Climate Changes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Based on Remote Sensing
    WANG Rui, HE Min, NIU Zhenguo
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (2): 189-201.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1107-2
    摘要304)      PDF (1759KB)(509)   
    The alpine wetlands in QTP (Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau) have been profoundly impacted along with global climate changes. We employ satellite datasets and climate data to explore the relationships between alpine wetlands and climate changes based on remote sensing data. Results show that:1) the wetland NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and GPP (Gross Primary Production) were more sensitive to air temperature than to precipitation rate. The wetland ET (evapotranspiration) across alpine wetlands was greatly correlated with precipitation rate. 2) Alpine wetlands responses to climate changes varied spatially and temporally due to different geographic environments, variety of wetland formation and human disturbances. 3) The vegetation responses of the Zoige wetland was the most noticeable and related to the temperature, while the GPP and NDVI of the Qiangtang Plateau and Gyaring-Ngoring Lake were significantly correlated with both temperature and precipitation. 4) ET in the Zoige wetland showed a significantly positive trend, while ET in Maidika wetland and the Qiangtang plateau showed a negative trend, implying wetland degradation in those two wetland regions. The complexities of the impacts of climate changes on alpine wetlands indicate the necessity of further study to understand and conserve alpine wetland ecosystems.
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    High-resolution Surface Relative Humidity Computation Using MODIS Image in Peninsular Malaysia
    PENG Guangxiong, LI Jing, CHEN Yunhao, Abdul Patah NORIZAN, Liphong TAY
    中国地理科学(英文版)    2006, 16 (3): 260-264.  
    摘要1067)      PDF (386KB)(3527)   

    Forest fire is a serious disaster all over the world. The Fire Weather Index (FWI) System can be used in ap- plied forestry as a tool to investigate and manage all types of fire. Relative humidity (RH) is a very important parameter to calculate FWI. However, RH interpolated from meteorological data may not be able to provide precise and confident values for areas between far separated stations. The principal objective of this study is to provide high-resolution RH for FWI using MODIS data. The precipitable water vapor (PW) can be retrieved from MODIS using split window techniques. Four-year-time-series (2000-2003) of 8-day mean PW and specific humidity (Q) of Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the statistic expression between PW and Q was developed. The root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of Q estimated by PW is generally less than 0.0004 and the correlation coefficient is 0.90. Based on the experiential formula between PW and Q, surface RH can be computed with combination of auxiliary data such as DEM and air temperature (Ta). The mean absolute errors of the estimated RH in Peninsular Malaysia are less than 5% compared to the measured RH and the correlation coefficient is 0.8219. It is proven to be a simple and feasible model to compute high-resolution RH using remote sensing data.

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    Poverty Reduction, Environmental Protection and Ecosystem Services:A Prospective Theory for Sustainable Development
    ZHEN Nahui, FU Bojie, LU Yihe, WANG Shuai
    中国地理科学    2014, 0 (1): 83-92.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-014-0658-5
    摘要313)   HTML0)    PDF (244KB)(1537)   

    Poverty reduction and environmental protection are two global tasks for sustainable development. The study perspective has changed over time, from narrowly focusing on poverty reduction to comprehensively strengthening human-welfare. We reviewed key references targeting the theoretical content and practical approach relying on poverty, environment protection and ecosystem services. We discussed the contradicting views on the relationship of poverty and environmental degradation, and then illustrated the study progress of a cutting-age topic-ecosystem services which pave a way to address poverty reduction and environmental protection together. At last, we investigated essential factors that affect the development and environmental protection. Considering the evolution of the concept of poverty, we found that the environment has occupied an increasing proportion in the cognizance of poverty. The relationship between poverty and environmental degradation is regional uniqueness. In practical aspect, projects based on the management and valuation assessment of ecosystem services draw researchers' attention all over the world. The appropriate scale, essential economic incentives, morality, law and social equality are key factors affecting individuals' decisions which directly relate to the sustainable development.

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