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    Regional Sustainable Assessment at City Level Based on CSDIS (China Sustainable Development Indicator System) Concept in the New Era, China
    WEI Jianfei, DING Zhiwei, MENG Yiwei, LI Qiang
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 976-992.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1158-4
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要112)      PDF (13098KB)(479)   
    The core issue of sustainable development refers to the coordinated development of economic-social-environmental issues. In the present study, by complying with the China Sustainable Development Indicator System (CSDIS) concept, a comprehensive index system was built; besides, Natural Breaks (Jenks) Classification Method, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis and Geographic Detector Analysis were conducted to delve into the sustainability and coordinated degree at city level in China from 2007 to 2017. The achieved results are presented as follows. First, for spatial differentiation, the overall spatial distribution pattern was characterized by the high-value units in eastern China and the low-value units in western China from 2007 to 2017. To be specific, the high-value units were radiated along the Beijing-Guangdong Axis (Jing-Guang Axis) centered on the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the middle-value units were distributed in strips along the coast, and the low-value units were vastly gathered in western China and gradually break via the Hu Huanyong line (Hu Line) in south China from 2007 to 2017. More specifically, based on the five subsystems, the pattern of each system was consistent with the whole, whereas the degree of concentration was different. Second, for spatial correlation, the significant High-High (HH) areas were primarily distributed in the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions. The significant Low-Low (LL) areas were continuously distributed in the southwest China and broke through the Hu Line from 2007 to 2017. There were insufficient number of significant High-Low (HL) and significant Low-High (LH) areas, whereas the spatial agglomeration of them was less obvious. Third, for internal coupling coordination, the spatial differentiation between the coupling degree and the coupling coordinated degree was significantly consistent in 2007 and 2017. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions have demonstrated a high level of coordinated evolution, and the pattern of western mountainous areas exhibited a low degree of coordinated growth. Lastly, based on the combination of quantitative and qualitative, its factors were underpinned by robust economic strength, the vitality support of the information level and the basic support function of the topography, active guidance of national policies and path dependence and industrial transfer.
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    Effect of Hydrological Connectivity on Soil Carbon Storage in the Yellow River Delta Wetlands of China
    FENG Jiuge, LIANG Jinfeng, LI Qianwei, ZHANG Xiaoya, YUE Yi, GAO Junqin
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 197-208.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1185-9
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要154)      PDF (2816KB)(350)   
    Hydrological connectivity has significant effects on the functions of estuarine wetland ecosystem. This study aimed to examine the dynamics of hydrological connectivity and its impact on soil carbon pool in the Yellow River Delta, China. We calculated the hydrological connectivity based on the hydraulic resistance and graph theory, and measured soil total carbon and organic carbon under four different hydrological connectivity gradients (Ⅰ 0?0.03, Ⅱ 0.03?0.06, Ⅲ 0.06?0.12, Ⅳ 0.12?0.39). The results showed that hydrological connectivity increased in the north shore of the Yellow River and the south tidal flat from 2007 to 2018, which concentrated in the mainstream of the Yellow River and the tidal creek. High hydrological connectivity was maintained in the wetland restoration area. The soil total carbon storage and organic carbon storage significantly increased with increasing hydrological connectivity from Ⅰ to Ⅲ gradient and decreased in Ⅳ gradient. The highest soil total carbon storage of 0?30 cm depth was 5172.34 g/m2, and organic carbon storage 2764.31 g/m2 in Ⅲ gradient. The hydrological connectivity changed with temporal and spatial change during 2007?2018 and had a noticeable impact on soil carbon storage in the Yellow River Delta. The results indicated that appropriate hydrological connectivity, i.e. 0.08, could effectively promote soil carbon storage.
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    Spatial and Temporal Evolution Characteristics of PM2.5 in China from 1998 to 2016
    LI Hua, TONG Helong, WU Xianhua, LU Xiaoli, MENG Shuhan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 947-958.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1157-5
    录用日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要229)      PDF (2968KB)(294)   
    The rapid development of China's economy and urbanization has given rise to noticeable environmental problems, among which the change of air quality has received extensive attention. The panel data of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) in 343 prefecture-level cities in China from 1998 to 2016 were statistically analyzed to reveal the characteristics of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of China's air quality in the past two decades. The results show that: 1) the overall deterioration trend of air quality is obvious throughout the country. The variation trend of PM2.5 was divided into three phases: rapid-growth phase (1998–2007), lag phase (2006–2011) and mildly-incremental phase (2012–2016), with their average growth rates of 7.19%, −3.59% and 0.52%, respectively. 2) The spatial difference of PM2.5 values in China increased significantly with time. Since 2003, the high-value area in the east has expanded rapidly, and polarization became much more pronounced. The change rate of PM2.5 is high in the east and west and low in the middle. The change rates of most areas in the west exceed more than 80%, and in the east lie somewhere between 40% and 60%. In the midlands, the change rate is not large and some regions even show a negative growth. 3) The change rate of PM2.5 is also high in areas with higher values. However, in regions where the change rate of PM2.5 is high, the value of PM2.5 is not always high. The high change rate is mainly attributable to the low base value of PM2.5 and the cities concerned belong to sensitive areas. 4) According to the PM2.5 warning index, the number of strong, medium, weak and non-warning areas in China is 45, 85, 159 and 54, respectively.
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    The Community Renewal of Shantytown Transformation in Old Industrial Cities: Evidence from Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang, China
    DONG Lijing, WANG Yongchao, LIN Jiayi, ZHU Ermeng
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1022-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1164-6
    摘要96)      PDF (2219KB)(266)   
    There are many problems, such as poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure and how to improve the ecological environment, in the shantytowns of old industrial cities. Shantytowns are the most centralized areas with different contradictions, referred to as the ‘problem areas’ of urban sustainable development. The shantytown transformation of old industrial cities is a typical process of unit community disintegration, which is reflected not only in the reconstruction of physical space but also in the community renewal of social spatial integration and culture reconstruction. Based on qualitative research, questionnaires and in-depth interviews, taking Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang as a research case, this paper attempts to analyse the characteristics and driving forces of the community renewal of shantytown transformation in old industrial cities. We found that the physical space of Tiexi Worker Village has changed considerably, which is embodied in its land use structure, living environment and community service facilities, reflecting the development of community function from simple industrial function to comprehensive functions. The residents in this community have experienced a transformation from a period of homogeneity to one of heterogeneity. The social network of the community has been destroyed. Social stratification, social differentiation and higher fluidity have occurred. Community renewal is mainly affected by macro factors such as policy regulation, economic driving, condition constraints, and micro factors such as residents' choice of living space and willingness to renew their communities. The transformation policy of the old industrial zone and the development policy of the new urban area are the fundamental and deep-seated reasons for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which determine the direction of the renewal and development of the community. The paid use of land and the development of the real estate industry are the direct stimulating factors for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which become the direct reasons for the spatial transformation. The changes in the population in urban and rural areas and the promotion of traffic are the driving factors for the renewal of the community, while the choice of residents and their willingness regarding community renewal are the endogenous forces for promoting community renewal. Finally, the author attempts to put forward a model of the interlaced mechanism of the forming of community renewal at the macroscopic and microcosmic levels, which are the urban renewal and reconstruction and social space differentiation of community residents, respectively.
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    Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment of Songhua River, Northeast China
    LIU Baolin, DONG Deming, HUA Xiuyi, DONG Weihua, LI Ming
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 223-233.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1186-8
    摘要76)      PDF (6684KB)(261)   
    The Songhua River, one of the seven major rivers in China, locates in Northeast China with 1897 km long. This study aims to investigate the concentrations, distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in main stream and tributaries of the Songhua River in Jilin Province, Northeast China. Surface sediment samples (0-15 cm) were collected from 39 sampling sites in the Songhua River in July 2012. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr were analyzed. The mean concentrations of heavy metals were (24.0 ±9.2) mg/kg, (59.3 ±18.0) mg/kg, (4.0 ±2.1) mg/kg, (39.0 ±27.9) mg/kg, (18.5 ±8.6) mg/kg and (56.1 ±17.6) mg/kg for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni, respectively. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni were higher than their background values. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in the lower reaches with industrial enterprises and cities along the Songhua River. Zn, Pb and Ni might come from industrial sewage and mineral processing, while Cu and Cd were derived from electroplating wastewater and agricultural non-point source sewage. Cr originated from lithogenic sources. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr were below the effect range low (ERL) at all sites, while Cd, Pb and Ni concentrations were detected ranging from ERL to the effect range median (ERM) at more than 15% of samples. Concentrations of Ni exceeded ERM in more than 50% of samples. The mean toxic units of heavy metals in the Songhua River decreased following the order: Cd (6.7) > Pb (2.2) > Ni (1.6) > Cu (0.7) > Cr (0.5) = Zn (0.5). Potential ecological risk index was found to be higher in middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, where Cd could impose an extremely high ecological risk.
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    Influences of Seasonal Freezing and Thawing on Soil Water-stable Aggregates in Orchard in High Cold Region, Northeast China
    LIANG Yunjiang, DENG Xu, SONG Tao, CHEN Guoshuang, WANG Yuemei, ZHANG Qing, LU Xinrui
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 234-247.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1187-7
    摘要70)      PDF (2556KB)(247)   
    Soil aggregate stability, as an important indicator of soil functions, may be affected by seasonal freezing and thawing (SFT) and land use in high cold and wet regions. Therefore, comprehensive understanding the effects of SFT on aggregate stability in orchards during winter and spring is crucial to develop appropriate management strategies that can effectively alleviate the degradation of soil quality to ensure sustainable development of orchard ecosystems. To determine the mechanism of degradation in orchard soil quality, the effects of SFT on the stability of water-stable aggregates were examined in apple-pear orchards (Pyrus ussuriensis var. ovoidea) of four different ages (11, 25, 40, and 63 yr) on 0 to 5% slopes before freezing and after thawing from October 2015 to June 2016 in Longjing City, Yanbian Prefecture, Northeast China, involving a comparison of planted versus adjacent uncultivated lands (control). Soil samples were collected to investigate water-stable aggregate stability in three incremental soil layers (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm). In the same samples, iron oxide, organic matter, and clay contents of the soil were also determined. Results showed that the destructive influences of SFT on water-stable aggregates were more pronounced with the increased orchards ages, and SFT exerted severe effects on water-stable aggregates of older orchards (40 and 63 yr) than juvenile orchards. Undergoing SFT, the soil instability index and the percentage of aggregate destruction increased by mean 0.15 mm and 1.86%, the degree of aggregation decreased by mean 1.32%, and the erosion resistance weakened, which consequently led to aggregate stability decreased. In addition, soil free, amorphous, and crystalline iron oxide as well as soil organic matter and clay contents are all important factors affecting the stability of water-stable aggregates, and their changes in their contents were consistent with those in the stability of water-stable aggregates. The results of this study suggest that long-term planting fruit trees can exacerbate the damaging effects of SFT on aggregate stability and further soil erosion increases and nutrient losses in an orchard, which hider sustainable use of soil and the productivity orchards.
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    Land Use/Cover Change and Its Policy Implications in Typical Agriculture-forest Ecotone of Central Jilin Province, China
    DONG Yulin, REN Zhibin, FU Yao, YANG Ran, SUN Hongchao, HE Xingyuan
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 261-275.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1189-5
    摘要57)      PDF (3497KB)(243)   
    During the 21st century, policies toward agriculture, forestry, and urbanization have emerged to ensure food security, ecological restoration, and human well-being by managing land in Northeast China. However, the integrated effects and relationships of various policies are still not well understood. This study observed the land use land cover changes in Central Jilin from 2000 to 2019 and, by considering policy involvement, aimed to understand the effects and trade-offs of policies. Results showed that the cropland, including dryland and rice paddy, and the forest, including coniferous forest and deciduous forest, are dominant land types in Central Jilin. During 2000-2019, the land changed diversely, of which the main changes were the expanded dryland (+0.43 million ha), the increased deciduous forest (+22 million ha), the decreased coniferous forest (-0.08 million ha), and the expanded urban settlement (+0.04 million ha). With these changes, despite the unit grain yield showing a rising trend, the yield contribution of Central Jilin to the national total decreased. The poor cultivating structure made for the cropland expansion and reduced the implementation space of environmental restoration projects such as the Grain to Green. Thus, in Central Jilin that transits from the agri-food production zone to the eco-regulation zone, environmental projects coexisted in a trade-off manner with agricultural policies that aim to liberate agricultural productivity. In the key urban agglomerations of Central Jilin, the increase in the proportion of green space improved the thermal environment and carbon balance. The gross domestic product of the large city and its local proportion also rose. These improvements benefited from the promotion of development policies and urbanization policies at key time points. In the future, it is necessary to coordinate agricultural policies and environmental projects and promote the progress of small- and medium-sized cities to ensure the equality of regional development. This study has implications for making decisions to revitalize Northeast China and researchers who inform decisions.
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    Spatial Pattern of Long-term Residence in the Urban Floating Population of China and its Influencing Factors
    CHEN Le, XI Meijun, JIN Wanfu, HU Ya
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 342-358.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1193-9
    摘要80)      PDF (1066KB)(243)   
    Exploring long-term residence among the urban floating population is crucial to understanding urban growth in China, particularly since the 2008 financial crisis. By using China Migrants Dynamic Survey data for 2012-2014, China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data for 2014-2016, and macroscale urban matched data, we analyzed the spatial pattern of long-term residential behavior in China’s urban floating population in 2012-2016 and developed an urban spatial utility equilibrium model containing ‘macro’ urban factors and ‘micro’ individual and household factors to explain the pattern. The results first revealed that long-term residence is defined as ≥ 6 yr for the urban floating population in China. Second, members of this population are more likely to be long-term residents of the megacities in the three urban agglomerations in eastern China as well as of small and medium-sized cities in western and northeastern China, whereas short-term residence is more likely in cities in central China and near the three urban agglomerations. Third, urban population density and housing prices, both have a significant U-shaped effect, are main factors affecting the spatial pattern of long-term residence.
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    Evaluation and Influence Factor of Green Efficiency of China’s Agricultural Innovation from the Perspective of Technical Transformation
    HE Weichun, LI Erling, CUI Zhizhen
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 313-328.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1192-x
    摘要60)      PDF (3406KB)(242)   
    Agricultural innovation is important for the green transformation of agriculture. Based on the perspective of technology transformation, this paper builds a theoretical analysis framework and evaluation index system for green efficiency of agricultural innovation, and discusses the evolution laws and influencing factors of the green efficiency of China’s agricultural innovation from 2005 to 2017 utilizing the DEA model, Malmquist index, and Tobit regression analysis. The results show that: 1) The overall green efficiency of China’s agricultural innovation is not high, the green efficiency of agricultural innovation in eastern China is mainly driven by pure technical efficiency, while that in central and western China is mainly driven by the scale efficiency. The green efficiency of agricultural innovation shows significant spatial differences, and the low efficiency and relatively low-efficiency regions moved to central and southeastern China. 2) Technical progress is the main force affecting the change of green total factor productivity of China’s agricultural innovation, seeing a trend of decrease followed by an increase. Pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency exhibit an increasing-decreasing trend, and gradually transform into key factors that restrict the improvement of the green total factor productivity of agricultural innovation. 3) Agricultural technologies’ diffusion, absorption, and implementation are three influencing factors of the green efficiency of agricultural innovation. The local level of informatization, the number of agricultural technicians in enterprises and institutions, average education level of residents, and the level of agricultural mechanization have positive impacts on the promotion of the green efficiency of agricultural innovation, promoting the diffusion, absorption and implementation of agricultural innovation technology can significantly improve the green efficiency of agricultural innovation.
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    Predicting Surface Urban Heat Island in Meihekou City, China: A Combination Method of Monte Carlo and Random Forest
    ZHANG Yao, LIU Jiafu, WEN Zhuyun
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 659-670.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1215-7
    摘要55)      PDF (1439KB)(240)   
    Given the rapid urbanization worldwide, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has been a severe issue limiting urban sustainability in both large and small cities. In order to study the spatial pattern of Surface urban heat island (SUHI) in China’s Meihekou City, a combination method of Monte Carlo and Random Forest Regression (MC-RFR) is developed to construct the relationship between landscape pattern indices and Land Surface Temperature (LST). In this method, Monte Carlo acceptance-rejection sampling was added to the bootstrap layer of RFR to ensure the sensitivity of RFR to outliners of SUHI effect. The SHUI in 2030 was predicted by using this MC-RFR and the modeled future landscape pattern by Cellular Automata and Markov combination model (CA-Markov). Results reveal that forestland can greatly alleviate the impact of SUHI effect, while reasonable construction of urban land can also slow down the rising trend of SUHI. MC-RFR performs better for characterizing the relationship between landscape pattern and LST than single RFR or Linear Regression model. By 2030, the overall SUHI effect of Meihekou will be greatly enhanced, and the center of urban development will gradually shift to the central and western regions of the city. We suggest that urban designer and managers should concentrate vegetation and disperse built-up land to weaken the SUHI in the construction of new urban areas for its sustainability.
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    Spatio-temporal Differentiation and Driving Factors of Industrial Ecology of Restricted Development Zone from Adaptive Perspective: A Case Study of Shandong, China
    GUO Fuyou, GAO Siqi, TONG Lianjun, QIU Fangdao, YAN Hengzhou
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 329-341.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1184-x
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要91)      PDF (1365KB)(217)   
    Based on the adaptive analysis paradigm, this paper constructs an evaluation index system and an evaluation model of the level of industrial ecology of a restricted development zone from the perspective of the industrial system and of the environmental system, and studies the spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and the driving factors of the level of industrial ecology of the restricted development zone of the Shandong Province, China, by using a variety of measurement methods. The results show that: 1) In the temporal dimension, the level of industrial ecology of the research area increased from 2005 to 2017, while in the regional dimension, it was higher in the eastern coastal areas, followed by the northwestern area and the southwestern area; 2) In the spatial dimension, from 2005 to 2017 the level of industrial ecology of the research area had a clear spatial dependence, and the regional spatial agglomeration of the restricted development zones with similar industrial ecology levels become increasingly evident; 3) On the whole, the industrial ecology level in the study area had a clear spatial differentiation pattern, as it was higher in the north and in the east and lower in the south and in the west. Moreover, its evolution model changed from a ‘three-core driven model’ to a ‘spatial scattered mosaic distribution model’, and then to a ‘single-core driven model’; 4) Industrial ecology was positively correlated with economic development, foreign investment, science and technology, and negatively correlated with the government role, while industrial structure and environmental regulation failed to pass the statistical significance test.
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    Spatiotemporal Trends and Ecological Determinants in Population by Elevation in China Since 1990
    MA Chaoqun, HE Yanfen
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 248-260.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1188-6
    摘要69)      PDF (2772KB)(215)   
    It is very important to understand the ecological and socio-economic factors in population distribution and their changes over time for the compilation of regional development planning and the guidance of rational population flow. Using surface-based population data for China from 1990 to 2015, the national distribution and dynamics of the human population by elevation are quantified based on 1-km cell-size gridded distribution datasets and 1-km cell-size DEM (digital elevation model). A geographical detector model is used to quantitatively analyze the dominant role of natural geographical factors, such as topography and climate, on the spatial distribution of population. Results show that: 1) the population size and density decrease rapidly with elevation below 1000 m above the sea level, and the gap in population density between low-altitude areas and high-altitude areas increases with time because of the continuous growth of population density in low-altitude areas; 2) the distribution of the population can be divided into five steps according to integrated population density (IPD), in proportions of 43∶35∶21∶1∶0, and that these proportions have remained stable over the last 25 yr; 3) the basic pattern of population spatial distribution is determined by natural geographical environment factors, such as topography, climate, geomorphology, and their interactions; and 4) the development of society and the economy are the driving forces for the dynamic change in the population distribution during the study period, with the distribution pattern and dynamics of population by altitude in China providing a comprehensive reflection of various geographical elements on different spatial scales.
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    Spatial Mismatch or Not? Evidence from Public Janitors in Xi'an, China
    CHEN Chen, CHENG Lin, XIU Chunliang, LI Jiuquan
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 376-386.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1194-8
    摘要56)      PDF (10571KB)(214)   
    Research on the spatial mismatch experienced by low-income minority residents is US-centric. However, spatial mismatch is not necessarily an appropriate term when considering the situation of low-wage workers in cities of northwestern China where there is higher proximity between jobs and housing and lower levels of residential segregation. This paper empirically examines the jobs-housing spatial relationship for one of the most typical low-wage groups, namely, public janitors, in Xi’an, China. Also, the causes of the jobs-housing spatial relationship are discussed in detail. Individual-level data based on in-depth interviews and questionnaires, as well as the GIS network analysis method, are used to provide baseline analyses of the jobs-housing spatial relationship. Results indicate that there is no jobs-housing spatial mismatch for public janitors in Xi’an. This can be implied from the short commuting distance and time. A basic cause is that most public janitors rent low-cost accommodation in villages-in-the-city, and in old residential quarters, near to their places of work. Other causes lie in off-peak commuting and high sensitivity to commuting distance due to the greater extent of non-motorized commuting modes. The conclusions, based on a large number of social surveys, are an illuminating analysis of the spatial mismatch issue among low-wage workers in Chinese cities.
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    Geography of Talent in China During 2000-2015: An Eigenvector Spatial Filtering Negative Binomial Approach
    GU Hengyu, Francisco ROWE, LIU Ye, SHEN Tiyan
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 297-312.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1191-y
    摘要74)      PDF (6616KB)(208)   
    The increase in China’s skilled labor force has drawn much attention from policymakers, national and international firms and media. Understanding how educated talent locates and re-locates across the country can guide future policy discussions of equality, firm localization and service allocation. Prior studies have tended to adopt a static cross-national approach providing valuable insights into the relative importance of economic and amenity differentials driving the distribution of talent in China. Yet, few adopt longitudinal analysis to examine the temporal dynamics in the stregnth of existing associations. Recently released official statistical data now enables space-time analysis of the geographic distribution of talent and its determinants in China. Using four-year city-level data from national population censuses and 1% population sample surveys conducted every five years between 2000 and 2015, we examine the spatial patterns of talent across Chinese cities and their underpinning drivers evolve over time. Results reveal that the spatial distribution of talent in China is persistently unequal and spatially concentrated between 2000 and 2015. It also shows gradually strengthened and significantly positive spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of talent. An eigenvector spatial filtering negative binomial panel is employed to model the spatial determinants of talent distribution. Results indicate the influences of both economic opportunities and urban amenities, particularly urban public services and greening rate, on the distribution of talent. These results highlight that urban economic- and amenity-related factors have simultaneously driven China’s talent’s settlement patterns over the first fifteen years of the 21st century.
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    Simulation of Evapotranspiration Based on BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 from 1990 to 2018 in the Dajiuhu Basin
    WU Zongfan, ZHANG Lihua, LIU Dandan, ZHANG Kang, ZHU Zhiru, FU Yasheng, MA Yongming
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1095-1110.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1160-x
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要80)      PDF (5818KB)(206)   
    Accurate estimations of evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for understanding land-atmosphere coupling and atmosphere-underlying surface energy and water vapor exchanges. Based on input data processing, this paper simulates the temporal and spatial variation of ET in the Dajiuhu Basin from 1990 to 2018 using the BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 model. Compared with the ET measured by an eddy covariance (EC) tower, the model explained 80.1% of the ET variation. From 1990 to 2018, the average annual ET in the Dajiuhu Basin was 1262.7 mm/yr indicating a downward trend (–27.12 mm/yr). In 2005, a sudden change point was observed based on the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and 3-year moving t-test. Around 2005, the downward trend in ET slowed and the proportional trend of ET to precipitation changed from upward trend to downward trend. Regarding spatial distribution, the ET in the basin's central part was smaller than that in the basin's surrounding area, the ET of the southern slope was higher than that of the northern slope, and the decrease in the ET rate on the sunny side was lower than that on the shady side. ET decreased as the elevation increased, with the fastest decrease observed between 2184 and 2384 m. For different landcover types, the average ET exhibited the following order: deciduous forest > mixed forest > wetland > grass > agriculture land. Decreased solar radiation is the main reason for the decreased ET in the Dajiuhu Basin, followed by increased wind speed and relative humidity, which together contribute 83.9% to the ET trend. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the study of ET changes and the mechanism of ET and provides a decision-making reference for water resource management in the Dajiuhu Basin and even the South-to-North Water Transfer Project.
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    Dynamic Analysis of Supply and Demand Coupling of Ecosystem Services in Loess Hilly Region: A Case Study of Lanzhou, China
    LI Pengjie, LIU Chunfang, LIU Licheng, WANG Weiting
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 276-296.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1190-z
    摘要56)      PDF (2070KB)(204)   
    The relationship between the supply and demand for ecosystem services (ESs) is a key issue for the rational allocation of natural resources and optimisation of sustainable development capacity. This paper investigateed the dynamic evolution features of supply and demand of four ESs in Lanzhou of China, namely, water supply, food supply, carbon fixation and soil retention services. The cross-sectional data of 2005 and 2017 were used for calculating ESs value and its supply and demand through ArcGIS software, InVEST model, elastic coefficient model and coupling coordination model. Results showed that: 1) from 2005 to 2017, the supply of water supply services increased, the demand of soil retention services decreased, and the supply and demand of food supply and carbon fixation services increased. The high-value areas of service supply were mainly distributed in the rocky mountain areas in the southeast and northwest with high vegetation coverage, while the high-value areas of demand were mainly distributed in the urban areas and surrounding areas with high population density. 2) There were five different types of coupling relations. Water supply service was dominated by a negative coupling type D, which means that the decrease in demand for ESs has had a positive response on the supply of ESs. Negative coupling type C was the main type of food supply and carbon fixation services, which means that the increase in demand for ESs has had a negative response on the supply of ESs. All three services were supplemented by a positive coupling type A, which means that the increase in demand for ESs has had a positive response on the supply of ESs. Soil retention service generally exhibits a positive coupling type B, which means that the decrease in demand for ESs has had a negative response on the supply of ESs. 3) Over the past 12 yr, the coordination degree of supply and demand of water supply, food supply and soil retention services decreased, and the coordination degree of carbon fixation service increased. Various types of ES had a low degree of coupling and coordination, showing different characteristics of temporal and spatial evolution. The areas with imbalanced ESs supply and demand were mainly distributed in urban areas dominated by construction land. The research results are valuable to the optimisation of urban and rural ecological environments and the sustainable development of territory space under the framework of ecological civilisation, including similar ecologically vulnerable areas in other developing countries.
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    Spatial Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Resilience from the Perspective of Daily Activity: A Case Study of Nanjing, China
    SUN Honghu, ZHEN Feng
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 387-399.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1201-0
    摘要251)      PDF (5642KB)(194)   
    Based on the connotation of urban resilience and the main contradictions of China’s urbanization, urban resilience is placed within the main daily activities contradictory scene of the urban man-land system to build a theoretical framework of urban activity resilience. Relying on geographic big data, this study identifies the spatial characteristics of activity resilience, reveals the impact of activity environment on activity resilience in Nanjing, and proposes countermeasures. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Activity resilience presents a composite spatial structure of circles and clusters, and most areas are resilient but at a low level. 2) There are significantly positive and negative global autocorrelation between activity resilience and activity scale, and activity stability. Simultaneously, there also exists a local spatial autocorrelation with the opposite positive and negative trends. 3) Activity environment has a significant effect on activity resilience, and the degree and direction of influence among different dimensions and regions are heterogeneous. 4) For activity resilience, it is necessary to increase the matching degree between the scale and stability of activities, and reduce the excessive concentration and flow of activities. For the activity environment, it is necessary to improve the accessibility of the ecological environment, strengthen the high-quality supply of the infrastructure environment, optimize the balance of the location environment, and promote the inclusiveness of the social environment.
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    Spatial Structure, Hierarchy and Formation Mechanisms of Scientific Collaboration Networks: Evidence of the Belt and Road Regions
    GU Weinan, LIU Hui
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 959-975.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1161-9
    摘要113)      PDF (3903KB)(188)   
    Scientific collaboration has become an important part of the people-to-people exchanges in the Belt and Road initiative, and remarkable progress has been made since 2013. Taking the 65 countries along the Belt and Road (BRI countries) as the research areas and using collaborated Web of Science (WOS) core collection papers to construct an international scientific collaboration matrix, the paper explores the spatial structure, hierarchy and formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks of 65 countries along the Belt and Road. The results show that: 1) Beyond the Belt and Road regions (BRI regions), Central & Eastern Europe, China and West Asia & North Africa have formed a situation in which they all have the most external links with other countries beyond BRI regions. China has the dominant role over other BRI countries in generating scientific links. The overall spatial structure has changed to a skeleton structure consisting of many dense regions, such as Europe, North America, East Asia and Oceania. 2) Within the Belt and Road regions, Central & Eastern Europe has become the largest collaboration partner with other sub-regions in BRI countries. The spatial structure of scientific collaboration networks has transformed from the ‘dual core’ composed of China and the Central & Eastern Europe region, to the ‘multi-polarization’ composed of ‘one zone and multi-points’. 3) The hierarchical structure of scientific collaboration networks presents a typical ‘core-periphery’ structure, and changes from ‘single core’ to ‘double cores’. 4) Among the formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks, scientific research strength and social proximity play the most important roles, while geographical distance gradually weakens the hindrance to scientific collaboration.
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    The Environmental Impacts of Informal Economies in China: Inverted U-shaped Relationship and Regional Variances
    YANG Jiangmin, TAN Yiming, XUE Desheng, HUANG Gengzhi, XING Zuge
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 585-599.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1210-z
    录用日期: 2021-04-29

    摘要199)      PDF (3560KB)(188)   
    This paper aims to the debate on the nexus between informal economies and the environment by investigating the long-term dynamic impacts of China’s informal economies on pollution and considering regional differences in informal economies’ pollution. This paper uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model to estimate the size of informal economies and employs econometric models to examine their relationships to pollution based on provincial-level panel data from 2000 to 2017. The results indicate that informal economies’ effects on environmental pollution are not purely positive or negative. Rather, our model indicates that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between informal economies and pollution in the long run in China; this means that the level of environmental pollution increases at first and then decreases with the growth of informal economies. Further analysis shows that while this inverted, U-shaped relationship is significant in different regions of China, it is affected by different environmental impact factors. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications for environmental protection and sustainable development.
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    Analysis of Spatial Scale Effect on Urban Resilience: A Case Study of Shenyang, China
    FENG Xinghua, LEI Jing, XIU Chunliang, LI Jianxin, BAI Limin, ZHONG Yexi
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1005-1021.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1163-7
    摘要99)      PDF (5485KB)(174)   
    Based on urban physical space and theory of landscape ecology, a triune assessment framework —‘size-density- morphology’—was constructed in order to analyze the spatial pattern and the scale effect of urban resilience in Shenyang of China in 2015, and to explore the main impact factors of landscape under different spatial scale backgrounds. The results show that: 1) Urban resilience is an optimal combination of the resilience of size, density, and morphology. The urban resilience of Shenyang displays scale effect; the overall resilience level increases with the increase in scale, while the spatial difference and spatial similarity tend to decrease resilience. 2) As 2 km, 1 km and 2 km are scale inflection points of average value curves for size resilience, density resilience and morphology resilience, respectively in an urban setting; the optimal scale unit of comprehensive resilience is 1 km. Choosing 1 km–2 km as the basic spatial scale better depicts overall pattern and detailed characteristics of resilience in Shenyang. The spatial amplitudes of 0.5 km and 1 km are sensitive points for spatial autocorrelation of morphology and density resilience, size, and comprehensive resilience to scale effect. 3) The major landscape factors of urban size and morphology resilience transform with scale expansion. Aggregation index (AI) has a significant impact on urban resilience at different scales; its influence increases significantly with the increase in scale. 4) The high-level area of comprehensive resilience in Shenyang is the eastern ecological corridor area, while the low value area is the peripheral extension area of the city. To promote the overall level of resilience in Shenyang, this paper argues that the construction of ecological infrastructure should be strengthened in the peripheral extension area in a balanced manner. In the city center, population and building density should be controlled; the intensity of human activities should be reduced; impetus should be placed on landscape heterogeneity; and the homogeneous expansion of the area of construction should be prevented. In the eastern ecological corridors, the exploitation of ecosystem lands should be strictly controlled, and the integrity of the green landscape patches should be maintained.
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