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    Spatial Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Resilience from the Perspective of Daily Activity: A Case Study of Nanjing, China
    SUN Honghu, ZHEN Feng
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 387-399.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1201-0
    摘要251)      PDF (5642KB)(194)   
    Based on the connotation of urban resilience and the main contradictions of China’s urbanization, urban resilience is placed within the main daily activities contradictory scene of the urban man-land system to build a theoretical framework of urban activity resilience. Relying on geographic big data, this study identifies the spatial characteristics of activity resilience, reveals the impact of activity environment on activity resilience in Nanjing, and proposes countermeasures. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Activity resilience presents a composite spatial structure of circles and clusters, and most areas are resilient but at a low level. 2) There are significantly positive and negative global autocorrelation between activity resilience and activity scale, and activity stability. Simultaneously, there also exists a local spatial autocorrelation with the opposite positive and negative trends. 3) Activity environment has a significant effect on activity resilience, and the degree and direction of influence among different dimensions and regions are heterogeneous. 4) For activity resilience, it is necessary to increase the matching degree between the scale and stability of activities, and reduce the excessive concentration and flow of activities. For the activity environment, it is necessary to improve the accessibility of the ecological environment, strengthen the high-quality supply of the infrastructure environment, optimize the balance of the location environment, and promote the inclusiveness of the social environment.
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    Spatial and Temporal Evolution Characteristics of PM2.5 in China from 1998 to 2016
    LI Hua, TONG Helong, WU Xianhua, LU Xiaoli, MENG Shuhan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 947-958.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1157-5
    录用日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要229)      PDF (2968KB)(294)   
    The rapid development of China's economy and urbanization has given rise to noticeable environmental problems, among which the change of air quality has received extensive attention. The panel data of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) in 343 prefecture-level cities in China from 1998 to 2016 were statistically analyzed to reveal the characteristics of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of China's air quality in the past two decades. The results show that: 1) the overall deterioration trend of air quality is obvious throughout the country. The variation trend of PM2.5 was divided into three phases: rapid-growth phase (1998–2007), lag phase (2006–2011) and mildly-incremental phase (2012–2016), with their average growth rates of 7.19%, −3.59% and 0.52%, respectively. 2) The spatial difference of PM2.5 values in China increased significantly with time. Since 2003, the high-value area in the east has expanded rapidly, and polarization became much more pronounced. The change rate of PM2.5 is high in the east and west and low in the middle. The change rates of most areas in the west exceed more than 80%, and in the east lie somewhere between 40% and 60%. In the midlands, the change rate is not large and some regions even show a negative growth. 3) The change rate of PM2.5 is also high in areas with higher values. However, in regions where the change rate of PM2.5 is high, the value of PM2.5 is not always high. The high change rate is mainly attributable to the low base value of PM2.5 and the cities concerned belong to sensitive areas. 4) According to the PM2.5 warning index, the number of strong, medium, weak and non-warning areas in China is 45, 85, 159 and 54, respectively.
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    The Environmental Impacts of Informal Economies in China: Inverted U-shaped Relationship and Regional Variances
    YANG Jiangmin, TAN Yiming, XUE Desheng, HUANG Gengzhi, XING Zuge
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 585-599.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1210-z
    录用日期: 2021-04-29

    摘要199)      PDF (3560KB)(188)   
    This paper aims to the debate on the nexus between informal economies and the environment by investigating the long-term dynamic impacts of China’s informal economies on pollution and considering regional differences in informal economies’ pollution. This paper uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model to estimate the size of informal economies and employs econometric models to examine their relationships to pollution based on provincial-level panel data from 2000 to 2017. The results indicate that informal economies’ effects on environmental pollution are not purely positive or negative. Rather, our model indicates that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between informal economies and pollution in the long run in China; this means that the level of environmental pollution increases at first and then decreases with the growth of informal economies. Further analysis shows that while this inverted, U-shaped relationship is significant in different regions of China, it is affected by different environmental impact factors. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications for environmental protection and sustainable development.
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    Effect of Hydrological Connectivity on Soil Carbon Storage in the Yellow River Delta Wetlands of China
    FENG Jiuge, LIANG Jinfeng, LI Qianwei, ZHANG Xiaoya, YUE Yi, GAO Junqin
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 197-208.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1185-9
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要154)      PDF (2816KB)(350)   
    Hydrological connectivity has significant effects on the functions of estuarine wetland ecosystem. This study aimed to examine the dynamics of hydrological connectivity and its impact on soil carbon pool in the Yellow River Delta, China. We calculated the hydrological connectivity based on the hydraulic resistance and graph theory, and measured soil total carbon and organic carbon under four different hydrological connectivity gradients (Ⅰ 0?0.03, Ⅱ 0.03?0.06, Ⅲ 0.06?0.12, Ⅳ 0.12?0.39). The results showed that hydrological connectivity increased in the north shore of the Yellow River and the south tidal flat from 2007 to 2018, which concentrated in the mainstream of the Yellow River and the tidal creek. High hydrological connectivity was maintained in the wetland restoration area. The soil total carbon storage and organic carbon storage significantly increased with increasing hydrological connectivity from Ⅰ to Ⅲ gradient and decreased in Ⅳ gradient. The highest soil total carbon storage of 0?30 cm depth was 5172.34 g/m2, and organic carbon storage 2764.31 g/m2 in Ⅲ gradient. The hydrological connectivity changed with temporal and spatial change during 2007?2018 and had a noticeable impact on soil carbon storage in the Yellow River Delta. The results indicated that appropriate hydrological connectivity, i.e. 0.08, could effectively promote soil carbon storage.
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    Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ecological Security in the Wanjiang City Belt, China
    CAO Yuhong, LIU Meiyun, ZHANG Yu, CHEN Chen, CAO Weidong
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1052-1064.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1156-6
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要131)      PDF (4999KB)(99)   
    Ecological security is the foundation and guarantee of sustainable development, and its importance is increasingly widely recognized and valued by the world. The Yangtze River Basin is an important ecological security barrier in China and the Wanjiang City Belt (WCB) along the Yangtze River is directly related to the ecological security pattern of the entire basin. Based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model and a geographical information system (GIS) platform, an ecosystem security evaluation index system was constructed to measure and evaluate the evolution of ecosystem security in the WCB, China. Results showed that: 1) From 2000 to 2018, the overall level of ecological security in the study area was in a state of either early warning or medium warning, but the level of ecological security in each prefecture-level city was significantly different. 2) From the perspective of the evolution of the ecosystem, the value of its comprehensive evaluation index dropped from 4.255 in 2000 to 3.885 in 2018. From the perspective of subsystems, the value of Pressure comprehensive evaluation index is much higher than that of other subsystems, indicating that during the rapid development of the social economy, the pressure on the natural environment tended to rise, and triggered changes in the State and Response subsystems. 3) The coefficient of variation (CV) of the Driver was much higher than other factors influencing the ecological security system. There are large differences in the economic development and ecological evolution of the cities in the WCB. This study has improved the theoretical research on regional ecological security, and has certain practical guiding significance for building a beautiful, green and sustainable China and promoting global ecological security.
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    Urban Expansion of China from the 1970s to 2020 Based on Remote Sensing Technology
    LIU Fang, ZHANG Zengxiang, ZHAO Xiaoli, LIU Bin, WANG Xiao, YI Ling, ZUO Lijun, XU Jinyong, HU Shunguang, SUN Feifei, WANG Yafei
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (5): 765-781.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1225-5
    摘要125)      PDF (2851KB)(162)   
    Based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, urban expansion of 75 cities in China from the 1970s to 2020 was reconstructed by visual-interpretation method, which described the growing process of urban lands and its influences on local land use structures synchronously. By employing annual expansion area per city and urban expansion density, spatial-temporal characteristics and macro patterns of urban expansion were analyzed from the aspects of regional-distributions, administrative-levels and population-sizes comprehensively. Results indicate that: 1) urban expansion in China was universal, distinct, persistent, periodic and fluctuating. In the past five decades, urban lands of 75 monitored cities in China expanded dramatically from 3606.26 km2 to 30 521.13 km2. 2) Though urban expansion presented significant differences from the aspects of regional distribution, administrative levels, and population sizes, it exhibited a deceleration trend in the 13th Five-Year Plan among all kinds of cities. 3) Cultivated lands were the first land resource for urban expansion, and 55.17% of newly-expanded urban lands appeared by encroaching this land use type. China’s urban expansion has caused sustained pressure on cultivated land protection, especially in super megacities, and the contradiction between urban expansion and cultivated land protection will always exist. 4) The compactness of urban lands in China increased before 1987 and reduced in the next three decades, which was consistent with the implementation of major policies and the deployment of national strategies, and is expected to become compact with a stopping declining or even rebounding after the 13th Five-Year Plan.
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    Building Height Trends and Their Influencing Factors under China's Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Guangzhou, 1960-2017
    SUN Wu, LI Tao
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 993-1004.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1162-8
    摘要119)      PDF (6523KB)(113)   
    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of three-dimensional urban forms, especially building height, can have important implications for improving urban air quality and mitigating the urban heat island effect by optimizing urban planning and management policies. This study investigated building height evolution and its influencing factors over approximately half a century (1960–2017) in Guangzhou, China. The results indicated that the logarithmic declines in height, quantity, and area of urban buildings followed Zapf's law, which restricts the three-dimensional shape of the urban form. The urban building height decreased from the center to the periphery of the city and decreased with decreasing altitude and increasing distance from main roads. These characteristics constituted the three main spatial differentiation rules of building height in the central district of Guangzhou, and all exhibited a logarithmic decrease, which gradually strengthened over time. The development of a double-layered height structure of low-rise and high-rise buildings between 1990 and 2017 was a notable manifestation of the increase in vertical urban height over time. The three factors of city center, altitude, and accessibility, which represent centrality, low relief, proximity to water, and proximity to road networks, highlighted the roles of traffic accessibility and commercial attraction in building height evolution. The importance of location macroscopically depends on the combined effect of the geographical pattern, urban planning, and market forces of cities located on a plain near hill or by a river. The principle of profit orientation restricted spatiotemporal building height patterns.
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    Spatial Structure, Hierarchy and Formation Mechanisms of Scientific Collaboration Networks: Evidence of the Belt and Road Regions
    GU Weinan, LIU Hui
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 959-975.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1161-9
    摘要113)      PDF (3903KB)(188)   
    Scientific collaboration has become an important part of the people-to-people exchanges in the Belt and Road initiative, and remarkable progress has been made since 2013. Taking the 65 countries along the Belt and Road (BRI countries) as the research areas and using collaborated Web of Science (WOS) core collection papers to construct an international scientific collaboration matrix, the paper explores the spatial structure, hierarchy and formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks of 65 countries along the Belt and Road. The results show that: 1) Beyond the Belt and Road regions (BRI regions), Central & Eastern Europe, China and West Asia & North Africa have formed a situation in which they all have the most external links with other countries beyond BRI regions. China has the dominant role over other BRI countries in generating scientific links. The overall spatial structure has changed to a skeleton structure consisting of many dense regions, such as Europe, North America, East Asia and Oceania. 2) Within the Belt and Road regions, Central & Eastern Europe has become the largest collaboration partner with other sub-regions in BRI countries. The spatial structure of scientific collaboration networks has transformed from the ‘dual core’ composed of China and the Central & Eastern Europe region, to the ‘multi-polarization’ composed of ‘one zone and multi-points’. 3) The hierarchical structure of scientific collaboration networks presents a typical ‘core-periphery’ structure, and changes from ‘single core’ to ‘double cores’. 4) Among the formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks, scientific research strength and social proximity play the most important roles, while geographical distance gradually weakens the hindrance to scientific collaboration.
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    Regional Sustainable Assessment at City Level Based on CSDIS (China Sustainable Development Indicator System) Concept in the New Era, China
    WEI Jianfei, DING Zhiwei, MENG Yiwei, LI Qiang
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 976-992.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1158-4
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要112)      PDF (13098KB)(479)   
    The core issue of sustainable development refers to the coordinated development of economic-social-environmental issues. In the present study, by complying with the China Sustainable Development Indicator System (CSDIS) concept, a comprehensive index system was built; besides, Natural Breaks (Jenks) Classification Method, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis and Geographic Detector Analysis were conducted to delve into the sustainability and coordinated degree at city level in China from 2007 to 2017. The achieved results are presented as follows. First, for spatial differentiation, the overall spatial distribution pattern was characterized by the high-value units in eastern China and the low-value units in western China from 2007 to 2017. To be specific, the high-value units were radiated along the Beijing-Guangdong Axis (Jing-Guang Axis) centered on the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the middle-value units were distributed in strips along the coast, and the low-value units were vastly gathered in western China and gradually break via the Hu Huanyong line (Hu Line) in south China from 2007 to 2017. More specifically, based on the five subsystems, the pattern of each system was consistent with the whole, whereas the degree of concentration was different. Second, for spatial correlation, the significant High-High (HH) areas were primarily distributed in the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions. The significant Low-Low (LL) areas were continuously distributed in the southwest China and broke through the Hu Line from 2007 to 2017. There were insufficient number of significant High-Low (HL) and significant Low-High (LH) areas, whereas the spatial agglomeration of them was less obvious. Third, for internal coupling coordination, the spatial differentiation between the coupling degree and the coupling coordinated degree was significantly consistent in 2007 and 2017. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions have demonstrated a high level of coordinated evolution, and the pattern of western mountainous areas exhibited a low degree of coordinated growth. Lastly, based on the combination of quantitative and qualitative, its factors were underpinned by robust economic strength, the vitality support of the information level and the basic support function of the topography, active guidance of national policies and path dependence and industrial transfer.
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    Regional Equity and Influencing Factor of Social Assistance in China
    WANG Jiawei, YE Shilin, QI Xinhua
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 611-628.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1195-7
    录用日期: 2021-02-06

    摘要105)      PDF (6240KB)(73)   
    Social assistance is the last safety net in the social security system and plays a vital role in poverty alleviation in countries around the world. Promoting the equal financial assistance is meaningful to achieve equalization of social assistance. Based on the provincial panel data from 2002 to 2017, this paper analyzes the dynamic characteristics and main influencing factors of the equity of social assistance in China, using the Theil index and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results suggest that the level of per capita social assistance expenditure (PSAE) in China keeps increasing year by year, but the changes in different regions and provinces are quite different. These changes not only significantly changed the spatial pattern of PSAE in China, but also greatly improved its spatial coupling with the deeply impoverished areas. Further analysis shows that the regional inequality of PSAE between provinces is obvious during the study period, and the inter-regional inequality is significantly higher than the intra-regional inequality. This makes inter-regional inequality become the main source of the regional inequality of PSAE in China for a long time. According to GWR results, there is obvious spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the influence intensity and direction of the per capita financial revenue, urbanization rate, urban unemployment rate, natural disaster-affected area, and transfer payment intensity on the PSAE. The urbanization rate and per capita financial revenue are the main driving factors of PSAE, and the impact intensity of per capita financial revenue tends to strengthen. The remaining three factors have a positive effect on PSAE, but the effect intensity is not high.
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    Analysis of Spatial Scale Effect on Urban Resilience: A Case Study of Shenyang, China
    FENG Xinghua, LEI Jing, XIU Chunliang, LI Jianxin, BAI Limin, ZHONG Yexi
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1005-1021.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1163-7
    摘要99)      PDF (5485KB)(174)   
    Based on urban physical space and theory of landscape ecology, a triune assessment framework —‘size-density- morphology’—was constructed in order to analyze the spatial pattern and the scale effect of urban resilience in Shenyang of China in 2015, and to explore the main impact factors of landscape under different spatial scale backgrounds. The results show that: 1) Urban resilience is an optimal combination of the resilience of size, density, and morphology. The urban resilience of Shenyang displays scale effect; the overall resilience level increases with the increase in scale, while the spatial difference and spatial similarity tend to decrease resilience. 2) As 2 km, 1 km and 2 km are scale inflection points of average value curves for size resilience, density resilience and morphology resilience, respectively in an urban setting; the optimal scale unit of comprehensive resilience is 1 km. Choosing 1 km–2 km as the basic spatial scale better depicts overall pattern and detailed characteristics of resilience in Shenyang. The spatial amplitudes of 0.5 km and 1 km are sensitive points for spatial autocorrelation of morphology and density resilience, size, and comprehensive resilience to scale effect. 3) The major landscape factors of urban size and morphology resilience transform with scale expansion. Aggregation index (AI) has a significant impact on urban resilience at different scales; its influence increases significantly with the increase in scale. 4) The high-level area of comprehensive resilience in Shenyang is the eastern ecological corridor area, while the low value area is the peripheral extension area of the city. To promote the overall level of resilience in Shenyang, this paper argues that the construction of ecological infrastructure should be strengthened in the peripheral extension area in a balanced manner. In the city center, population and building density should be controlled; the intensity of human activities should be reduced; impetus should be placed on landscape heterogeneity; and the homogeneous expansion of the area of construction should be prevented. In the eastern ecological corridors, the exploitation of ecosystem lands should be strictly controlled, and the integrity of the green landscape patches should be maintained.
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    The Community Renewal of Shantytown Transformation in Old Industrial Cities: Evidence from Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang, China
    DONG Lijing, WANG Yongchao, LIN Jiayi, ZHU Ermeng
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1022-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1164-6
    摘要96)      PDF (2219KB)(266)   
    There are many problems, such as poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure and how to improve the ecological environment, in the shantytowns of old industrial cities. Shantytowns are the most centralized areas with different contradictions, referred to as the ‘problem areas’ of urban sustainable development. The shantytown transformation of old industrial cities is a typical process of unit community disintegration, which is reflected not only in the reconstruction of physical space but also in the community renewal of social spatial integration and culture reconstruction. Based on qualitative research, questionnaires and in-depth interviews, taking Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang as a research case, this paper attempts to analyse the characteristics and driving forces of the community renewal of shantytown transformation in old industrial cities. We found that the physical space of Tiexi Worker Village has changed considerably, which is embodied in its land use structure, living environment and community service facilities, reflecting the development of community function from simple industrial function to comprehensive functions. The residents in this community have experienced a transformation from a period of homogeneity to one of heterogeneity. The social network of the community has been destroyed. Social stratification, social differentiation and higher fluidity have occurred. Community renewal is mainly affected by macro factors such as policy regulation, economic driving, condition constraints, and micro factors such as residents' choice of living space and willingness to renew their communities. The transformation policy of the old industrial zone and the development policy of the new urban area are the fundamental and deep-seated reasons for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which determine the direction of the renewal and development of the community. The paid use of land and the development of the real estate industry are the direct stimulating factors for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which become the direct reasons for the spatial transformation. The changes in the population in urban and rural areas and the promotion of traffic are the driving factors for the renewal of the community, while the choice of residents and their willingness regarding community renewal are the endogenous forces for promoting community renewal. Finally, the author attempts to put forward a model of the interlaced mechanism of the forming of community renewal at the macroscopic and microcosmic levels, which are the urban renewal and reconstruction and social space differentiation of community residents, respectively.
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    Impact of Land Use Change on Vegetation Carbon Storage During Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
    WANG Zhi, XU Lihua, SHI Yijun, MA Qiwei, WU Yaqi, LU Zhangwei, MAO Liwei, PANG Enqi, ZHANG Qi
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 209-222.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1183-y
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要96)      PDF (1828KB)(161)   
    Land use changes have significant impacts on the carbon balance in an urban ecosystem. When there is rapid development in urbanizing regions, land use changes have a dramatic effect on vegetation carbon storage (VCS). This study investigates the impact of land use change on VCS in a period of rapid urbanization in Hangzhou, China. The results show that: 1) from 2000 to 2015, land use in Hangzhou underwent huge changes, mainly reflected in decrease in cropland and wetland and the increased settlement. More than 34.58% of the land was transformed, and the land use changes are primarily characterized by a significant decrease in cropland due to the occupation by settlement. 2) over the 15 years, changes in land use led to a decrease of 3.93×105 t of VCS in the urban ecosystem. The large-scale transformation of cropland and wetland, which have a comparatively high carbon density, into land for settlement exerted a negative impact on VCS. 3) The central city, which with the Circle-E/I/O mode, had the lowest comprehensive land use dynamic degree, leading to moderate land use change and an increase in VCS; Yuhang and Xiaoshan, which with Multicore-E/O/I mode and Fan-E/O/I modes, had a higher comprehensive land use dynamic degree, drastic changes in land use, and a decrease in VCS. This study proposes a reliable method of estimating changes in VCS, clarifies the relationship between land use change and VCS during rapid urbanization, and provides recommendations for sustainable urban development.
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    Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect SO2 Emissions in the Yangtze River Delta? A Spatial Econometric Analysis
    GUO Zheng, Sophia Shuang CHEN, YAO Shimou, Anna Charles MKUMBO
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 400-412.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1197-5
    录用日期: 2021-02-06

    摘要96)      PDF (2978KB)(100)   
    As the major source of air pollution, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have become the focus of global attention. However, existing studies rarely consider spatial effects when discussing the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and SO2 emissions. This study took the Yangtze River Delta as the research area and used the spatial panel data of 26 cities in this region for 2004–2017. The study investigated the spatial agglomeration effects and dynamics at work in FDI and SO2 emissions by using global and local measures of spatial autocorrelation. Then, based on regression analysis using a results of traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) model and a spatial econometric model, the spatial Durbin model (SDM) with spatial-time effects was adopted to quantify the impact of FDI on SO2 emissions, so as to avoid the regression results bias caused by ignoring the spatial effects. The results revealed a significant spatial autocorrelation between FDI and SO2 emissions, both of which displayed obvious path dependence characteristics in their geographical distribution. A series of agglomeration regions were observed on the spatial scale. The estimation results of the SDM showed that FDI inflow promoted SO2 emissions, which supports the pollution haven hypothesis. The findings of this study are significant in the prevention and control of air pollution in the Yangtze River Delta.
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    Spatial Identification of Housing Vacancy in China
    PAN Jinghu, DONG Leilei
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 359-375.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1171-7
    录用日期: 2020-10-24

    摘要92)      PDF (4859KB)(167)   
    The housing vacancy rate (HVR) is an important index in assessing the healthiness of residential real estate market. In China, it is hardly to take advantage of the basic data of real estate information due to the opaque of those data. In this paper, the HVR is estimated to two scales. At the grid level, urban area ratio was calculated by nighttime images after eliminating outliers of nighttime images and night light intensity of non-residential pixels in mixed pixels by a proposed modified optimal threshold method, and built-up areas in each pixel were extracted from the land-cover data. Then, the HVR is calculated by comparing the light intensity of specific grid with the light intensity of full occupancy rate regions. At the administrative scale, the GCI (‘ghost city’ index) is constructed by calculating the ratio of the total light radiation intensity of a city to the total construction land area of the city. The overall spatial differentiation pattern of the vacant houses in the national prefecture level administrative regions is analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn: vacant housing is rare in certain eastern coastal cities and regions in China with relatively fast economic development. Cities based on exhausted resources, some mountainous cities, and cities with relatively backward economic development more typically showed high levels of housing vacancy. The GCI of prefecture-level administrative units gradually declined from north to south, whereas the east-west distribution showed a parabolic shape. As city level decreased, the GCI registered a gradual upward trend. China’s urban housing vacancy can be divided into five categories: industry or resources driven, government planned, epitaxy expansionary, environmental constraint and speculative activate by combining the spatial distribution of housing vacancy with the factors of natural environment, social economic development level, and population density into consideration.
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    Spatio-temporal Differentiation and Driving Factors of Industrial Ecology of Restricted Development Zone from Adaptive Perspective: A Case Study of Shandong, China
    GUO Fuyou, GAO Siqi, TONG Lianjun, QIU Fangdao, YAN Hengzhou
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 329-341.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1184-x
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要91)      PDF (1365KB)(217)   
    Based on the adaptive analysis paradigm, this paper constructs an evaluation index system and an evaluation model of the level of industrial ecology of a restricted development zone from the perspective of the industrial system and of the environmental system, and studies the spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and the driving factors of the level of industrial ecology of the restricted development zone of the Shandong Province, China, by using a variety of measurement methods. The results show that: 1) In the temporal dimension, the level of industrial ecology of the research area increased from 2005 to 2017, while in the regional dimension, it was higher in the eastern coastal areas, followed by the northwestern area and the southwestern area; 2) In the spatial dimension, from 2005 to 2017 the level of industrial ecology of the research area had a clear spatial dependence, and the regional spatial agglomeration of the restricted development zones with similar industrial ecology levels become increasingly evident; 3) On the whole, the industrial ecology level in the study area had a clear spatial differentiation pattern, as it was higher in the north and in the east and lower in the south and in the west. Moreover, its evolution model changed from a ‘three-core driven model’ to a ‘spatial scattered mosaic distribution model’, and then to a ‘single-core driven model’; 4) Industrial ecology was positively correlated with economic development, foreign investment, science and technology, and negatively correlated with the government role, while industrial structure and environmental regulation failed to pass the statistical significance test.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity of Agricultural Science and Technology Parks Technology Diffusion: A Case Study of Yangling ASTP
    WANG Zhao, LIU Jianhong, LI Tongsheng, REN Wanying, RUI Yang
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 629-645.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1196-6
    录用日期: 2021-02-06

    摘要86)      PDF (1300KB)(80)   
    Agricultural science and technology parks (ASTPs) represent an important growth pole in China’s agricultural modernization. Clarifying their diffusion laws can optimize the technological diffusion process and improve its efficiency. Our study uses disaggregated spatial information in its model to analyze ASTP technology diffusion in a heterogeneous space. We constructed a comprehensive index system to evaluate the diffusion environmental quality and introduced the heterogeneous diffusion equation to calculate the technological diffusion probability. We applied this framework to a real-world scenario: the apple planting technology diffusion of the Yangling ASTP in the Loess Plateau, China. The results indicated: 1) the technological diffusion environment of the Loess Plateau advantageous apple producing area showed strong spatial heterogeneity caused by climate, topography, and external transportation links. 2) Under the combined effects of distance and spatial heterogeneity, the spatial diffusion pattern of the Yangling ASTP apple technology was expansion diffusion supplemented by hierarchical diffusion and banded diffusion, and 3) ASTP technology diffusion showed a strong distance attenuation effect, and the frictional effect of distance can be decreased by improving the diffusion environmental quality. These laws can promote regional balanced ASTP-driven development.
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    Impact of the Built Environment on the Spatial Heterogeneity of Regional Innovation Productivity: Evidence from the Pearl River Delta, China
    WU Kangmin, WANG Yang, ZHANG Hong’ou, LIU Yi, YE Yuyao
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 413-428.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1198-4
    录用日期: 2021-02-06

    摘要83)      PDF (10018KB)(75)   
    With the global economy increasingly dependent on innovation, urban discourse has shifted to consider what kinds of spatial designs may best nurture innovation. We examined the relationship between the built environment and the spatial heterogeneity of regional innovation productivity (RIP) using the example of China’s Pearl River Delta (PRD). Based on a spatial database of 522 546 patent data from 2017, this study proposed an innovation-based built environment framework with the following five aspects: healthy environment, daily interaction, mixed land use, commuting convenience, and technology atmosphere. Combining negative binomial regression and Geodetector to examine the impact of the built environment on RIP, the results show that the spatial distribution of innovation productivity in the PRD region is extremely uneven. The negative binomial regression results show that the built environment has a significant impact on the spatial differentiation of RIP, and, specifically, that healthy environment, mixed land use, commuting convenience, and technology atmosphere all demonstrate significant positive impacts. Meanwhile, the Geodetector results show that the built environment factor impacts the spatial heterogeneity of RIP to varying degrees, with technology atmosphere demonstrating the greatest impact intensity. We conclude that as regional development discourse shifts focus to the knowledge and innovation economy, the innovation-oriented design and updating of built environments will become extremely important to policymakers.
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    Spatial Pattern of Long-term Residence in the Urban Floating Population of China and its Influencing Factors
    CHEN Le, XI Meijun, JIN Wanfu, HU Ya
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 342-358.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1193-9
    摘要80)      PDF (1066KB)(243)   
    Exploring long-term residence among the urban floating population is crucial to understanding urban growth in China, particularly since the 2008 financial crisis. By using China Migrants Dynamic Survey data for 2012-2014, China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data for 2014-2016, and macroscale urban matched data, we analyzed the spatial pattern of long-term residential behavior in China’s urban floating population in 2012-2016 and developed an urban spatial utility equilibrium model containing ‘macro’ urban factors and ‘micro’ individual and household factors to explain the pattern. The results first revealed that long-term residence is defined as ≥ 6 yr for the urban floating population in China. Second, members of this population are more likely to be long-term residents of the megacities in the three urban agglomerations in eastern China as well as of small and medium-sized cities in western and northeastern China, whereas short-term residence is more likely in cities in central China and near the three urban agglomerations. Third, urban population density and housing prices, both have a significant U-shaped effect, are main factors affecting the spatial pattern of long-term residence.
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    Simulation of Evapotranspiration Based on BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 from 1990 to 2018 in the Dajiuhu Basin
    WU Zongfan, ZHANG Lihua, LIU Dandan, ZHANG Kang, ZHU Zhiru, FU Yasheng, MA Yongming
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1095-1110.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1160-x
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要80)      PDF (5818KB)(206)   
    Accurate estimations of evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for understanding land-atmosphere coupling and atmosphere-underlying surface energy and water vapor exchanges. Based on input data processing, this paper simulates the temporal and spatial variation of ET in the Dajiuhu Basin from 1990 to 2018 using the BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 model. Compared with the ET measured by an eddy covariance (EC) tower, the model explained 80.1% of the ET variation. From 1990 to 2018, the average annual ET in the Dajiuhu Basin was 1262.7 mm/yr indicating a downward trend (–27.12 mm/yr). In 2005, a sudden change point was observed based on the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and 3-year moving t-test. Around 2005, the downward trend in ET slowed and the proportional trend of ET to precipitation changed from upward trend to downward trend. Regarding spatial distribution, the ET in the basin's central part was smaller than that in the basin's surrounding area, the ET of the southern slope was higher than that of the northern slope, and the decrease in the ET rate on the sunny side was lower than that on the shady side. ET decreased as the elevation increased, with the fastest decrease observed between 2184 and 2384 m. For different landcover types, the average ET exhibited the following order: deciduous forest > mixed forest > wetland > grass > agriculture land. Decreased solar radiation is the main reason for the decreased ET in the Dajiuhu Basin, followed by increased wind speed and relative humidity, which together contribute 83.9% to the ET trend. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the study of ET changes and the mechanism of ET and provides a decision-making reference for water resource management in the Dajiuhu Basin and even the South-to-North Water Transfer Project.
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