Shadow is one of the major problems in remotely sensed imagery which hampers the accuracy of information extraction and change detection. In these images, shadow is generally produced by different objects, namely, cloud, mountain and urban materials. The shadow correction process consists of two steps: detection and de-shadowing. This paper reviews a range of techniques for both steps, focusing on urban regions (urban shadows), mountainous areas (topographic shadow), cloud shadows and composite shadows. Several issues including the problems and the advantages of those algorithms are discussed. In recent years, thresholding and recovery techniques have become important for shadow detection and de-shadowing, respectively. Research on shadow correction is still an important topic, particularly for urban regions (in high spatial resolution data) and mountainous forest (in high and medium spatial resolution data). Moreover, new algorithms are needed for shadow correction, especially given the advent of new satellite images.
Urban expansion is a phenomenon of urban space increase,and an important measuring index of the process of urbanization.Taking Shanghai as an example,the changes of urban average height and built-up area were studied to represent city's vertical and horizontal increases respectively,and statistical methods were used to analyze the driving forces of urban expansion.The research drew following conclusions:1) The urban expansion process of Shanghai from 1985 to 2006 had a clear periodic feature,and could be divided into three stages:vertical expansion in dominance,coordinated vertical and horizontal expansion,and horizontal expansion in dominance.2) The average height and quantity of buildings in core city were significantly bigger than those in suburbs,but the changing speed of the latter was faster.And 3) urbanization process was the major driving force for the city's horizontal expansion,while industrial structure improvement was the key driving factor for the vertical expansion.Those two driving forces were simultaneously affected by city's political factors.
Public education as well as tourism and leisure are the two important functions of national wetland park, and tourist behaviors act as the guiding factor in the national wetland park construction and management.As the first national wetland park in China, Xixi National Wetland Park, located in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, will give constructive instructions to the construction and management of other wetland parks and ecotourism resorts.This paper analyzed the tourist behaviors in Xixi National Wetland Park.By the observation, in-depth interview and questionnaire, the results show that tourists in wetland parks are different from those in the other common destinations, and they are also different from those strict eco-tourists.In fact, the tourists in wetland park have unique characteristics, such as the intense perception to the functions of wetland ecosystem and the environment impact behaviors.Those tourists are preferred to natural landscapes in their motivations and expectations.Wetland landscapes are the main image to those tourists in the Xixi National Wetland Park.Tourist expectation, experience and satisfaction are all critical factors for the success of the planning and management in national wetland parks.Based on the results, some measures for the sustainable development of wetland parks, including to optimize wetland theme landscape and tourism products, to improve tourist facilities and services, to enhance quality of visitor experiences, and to implement total quality management based on tourist characteristics, are given to national wetland park ecotourism.
The organizational structure change of enterprises should be subject to the change of strategy,and strategy change is the reaction to the environment change.This paper studied the expansion strategies and evolution paths of hotel groups in China by a survey in 2007,in which the research objects were 91 hotel groups listed by China Tourist Hotels Association.The conclusions are drawn:based on the two dimensions of unification management function scope and the unification management degree,hotel groups can be divided into four strategic types,including strategically concentrated group,close function group,widespread alliance group and loose union group.Simultaneously there are three different expansion paths:stability path,growth path and undulation path.About 72.5% of Chinese hotel groups have a stability or growth expansion path.
After 1995, Tibet entered the stage of accelerated urbanization. The large floating population from outside Tibet has become the driving force for urban expansion and the rising of urbanization rate. After analyzing the changes of urban functions and spatial structure of urban system in Tibet, this paper argues that before 1995 the urbanization in Tibet was mainly driven by administrative function, resulting in certain population migration, whereas in the past decade economic function has become the key factor accelerating urban expansion with the market mechanism creating large-scale inflow of population. The floating population-based urbanization and high population growth in the agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet has promoted the regional economic prosperity, but exerted resources and environmental pressure and brought some problems for Tibetan culture protection at the same time. The conflicts and contradictions between urbanization and the sustainability of natural resources, environment and social development have been intensified. Addressing these problems, this paper proposes some countermeasures for improving the sustainability of Tibetan urbanization.
Ecosystem service is an emerging concept that grows to be a hot research area in ecology.Spatially explicit ecosystem service values are important for ecosystem service management.However,it is difficult to quantify ecosystem services.Remote sensing provides images covering Earth surface,which by nature are spatially explicit.Thus,remote sensing can be useful for quantitative assessment of ecosystem services.This paper reviews spatially explicit ecosystem service studies conducted in ecology and remote sensing in order to find out how remote sensing can be used for ecosystem service assessment.Several important areas considered include land cover,biodiversity,and carbon,water and soil related ecosystem services.We found that remote sensing can be used for ecosystem service assessment in three different ways:direct monitoring,indirect monitoring,and combined use with ecosystem models.Some plant and water related ecosystem services can be directly monitored by remote sensing.Most commonly,remote sensing can provide surrogate information on plant and soil characteristics in an ecosystem.For ecosystem process related ecosystem services,remote sensing can help measure spatially explicit parameters.We conclude that acquiring good in-situ measurements and selecting appropriate remote sensor data in terms of resolution are critical for accurate assessment of ecosystem services.
There are more people but less land in China,so food safety has always been a most important issue government concerned.With continuous population increase,economic development and environment protection,cropland occupation and supplement are unavoidable.It not only leads to the variation of cropland area,but also makes the light-temperature potential productivity per unit area different due to regional climate differentiation,therefore impacts the total potential productivity and food output eventually.So,it is necessary to analyze the climate differentiation between occupation and supplement cropland areas and to study its impact on total potential productivity,which is significant to reasonably develop natural resources and instruct agricultural arrangement.This study firstly discussed the variation and distribution of occupation and supplement croplands in China from 2000 to 2008,then analyzed the climate differentiation between occupation and supplement cropland areas and its effect on light-temperature potential productivity.The results demonstrate:1) From 2000 to 2008,the cropland variation presented occupation in the south and supplement in the north,but overall decreased.Supplement cropland was mainly from ecological reclamation(77.78%) and was mainly distributed in Northeast China and Northwest China with poor climatic and natural conditions.Occupation cropland was mainly used for construction(52.88%) and ecological restoration(44.78%) purposes,and was mainly distributed in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain,and the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River with better climatic and natural conditions.2) The climate conditions were quite different in supplement and occupation cropland areas.The annual precipitation,annual accumulated temperature and average annual temperature were lower in the supplement cropland area,and its average po-tential productivity per unit was only 62% of occupation cropland area,which was the main reason for the decrease of total potential productivity.3) Cropland occupation and supplement led to the variation of total potential productivity and its spatial distribution.The productivity decreased in the south and increased in the north,but had a net loss of 4.38315×107 t in the whole country.The increase of cropland area was at the cost of reclaiming natural forest and grassland resources,and destroying natural ecological environment,while the decrease of cropland area was mainly due to a lot of cropland occupied by urban-rural construction,which threatened the sustainable use of cropland resources.
In the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China,the natural wetland is undergoing a rapid conversion into agricultural land,which has resulted in drastic ecological changes in the region. To investigate the effects of different land uses on soil labile organic carbon,soils of Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland,Carex lasiocarpa wetland,dry farmland,paddy field,forest land and abandoned cultivated land were collected for measuring the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC),dissolved organic carbon (DOC),readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) and carbohydrate carbon (CHC). The results show that soil organic carbon contents follow the order: Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland>forest land>paddy field>dry farmland. The contents of MBC and DOC in Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex lasiocarpa wetlands are significantly higher than those in other land use types. The contents of CHC and ROC are the highest in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and the lowest in dry farmland. The contents of all the labile organic carbon increase along with the years of abandonment of cultivated land. The ratios of MBC,DOC and ROC to SOC also follow the order:Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland>forest land>paddy field>dry farmland,while the ratio of CHC to SOC is paddy field>forest field>Carex lasiocarpa wetland>Carex lasiocarpa wetland>dry farmland. When natural wetlands were cultivated,the activity of soil organic carbon tends to reduce in some extent due to the disappearance of heterotrophic environment and the reduction of vegetation residue. Thus,the abandonment of cultivated land is an effective way for restoring soil organic carbon.
The Songnen Plain in Northeast China,one of the key national bases of agricultural production,went through remarkable land use/cover changes in recent years.This study aimed to explore the long-term land use/cover changes and the effects of these changes on the environment.The Landsat-based analysis showed that,during 1986-2000,cropland,built-up land and barren land had increased,among which cropland had the largest increase of 9,198km2 with an increase rate of 7.5%.Woodland,grassland,water body and swampland had decreased correspondingly,among which grassland had the most dramatic decrease of 6,127km2 with a decrease rate of 25.6%.The transition matrix results revealed that grassland,woodland and swampland were the three main land use types converted to cropland.Climate warming created the potential environment for the conversion of grassland and swampland into cropland.Land resources policy made by central and provincial governments of China affected the pattern and intensity of land use.Land use/cover changes accompanied by climatic variation brought out a series of environmental consequences,such as sand desertification of land,land salinization and alkalinization,grassland degradation,and more frequent floods.Under this circumstance,optimized land use structure and restoration measures are needed.
Taking social statistic data as basic data,this paper extended the meaning of urban land uses,highlighted the meaning of urban land uses in modern urbanization,which includes direct,indirect and induced land uses,quantitatively simulated the indirect and induced land uses by the substitution method of agricultural consumption and urban carbon emission and then,analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of urban land uses in China during 1952-2005 by spatial analysis tool of Geographic Information System. The results indicate that the area of urban land use in China had been increasing since 1952,showing an inversed pyramid structure,i.e.,the direct<the indirect<the induced. Specifically,Chinese urban land use has changed from concentrated distribution in Northwest China to balanced spatial distribution,and the eastern coastal area is under great pressure. Moreover,the northeastern region has moved into the induced dominant stage,while the western region remains at the indirect dominant stage. Finally,it is proposed that in order to guarantee the future demand of urban land use in China,ensuring the induced land use in the eastern region should be taken as a priority goal of Chinese developing policy.
Port-city system is a complex and integral system, and it can be simulated by system dynamic method, which is used to be employed to solve nonlinear problems. Based on the causality of the every element in the port-city system, the authors analyzed the feedback relation and logical relation among the system variables and system structure. A system-dynamic flow chart and correlation equations were put forward with VENSIM software, the quantitative relation was described, and the model was debugged. The development trend of the main influence factors in port-city system was simulated. By changing the parameters values of variables in the model, we studied the influence degree of each related factor. It is found that: 1) Foreign trade throughput of port play an important role in the development of export-oriented economy. 2) The development of primary industry and secondary industry affects most of the water transportation demand. With the constant increase of tertiary industry proportion in the industrial structure, the demand of national economy for water transportation decreases gradually. 3) Water transportation presents a kind of oversupply development situation, so port construction should properly slow down. 4) With the development of ports, its direct and indirect contribution to urban economy has been continuously increasing, but contribution rate will be continuously decreasing.
History has brought us into a significant moment when the majority of the human kind has taken up residence in urban settlements. The focus of global urbanization has shifted to the developing world and the center of manufacturing is no longer confined to the Global North. This paper provides a periodical assessment of the current status of China’s urban transformation in the global context of a shifting emphasis of industrialization and urbanization. China’s phenomenal urban transformation deserves a special attention not only because of its unparalleled scale and speed but also because of its distinct trajectory of growth that does not confirm normal theoretical expectations. An evaluation of the current status of China’s urban transformation has revealed an urban economy with remarkable hybridity, a society that is increasingly stratified, polarized, and segregated, and a juxtaposed urban space undergoing restless and pervasive transformation. A decentering world should entail a decentering knowledge production. A critical reflection upon the Chinese patterns and processes of urban transformation has identified four main areas of research with great potentials for innovative knowledge production, namely 1) privatization and economic development; 2) state, society, and space; 3) urbanization of capital, labor, and land; and 4) the environment and Chinese political ecology. The paper closes with the remark that a rapidly transforming urban China has presented itself as a fertile and resourceful testing ground for critical and innovative geographic enquiries
Rural off-farm employment,rapid loss of agricultural land,and advanced technology popularization had led agricultural production in Chinese typical rural areas come at a critical transformation and upgrade stage.Based on sample survey data gathered from 401 households in Yucheng City,Shandong Province,this paper focuses on the characteristics and mechanism of agricultural transformation in typical rural areas of the eastern China.It was found that 74.3% of households surveyed kept at least one member engaging in off-farm employment,and 57.1% looked forward to expanding the operational scale of arable land,while just 13.7% had actually transferred their agricultural land.Since growing off-farm employment does not result in the collapse of traditional subsistence agriculture,therefore,agricultural production in Yucheng City is at an incomplete transformation phase from traditional small-holder farming to modern scale economy.It is caused by both macro environments and family characteristics,while urban-rural dual structure,imperfect rural development policy and agricultural technology popularization make peasant economy strengthen upon maintenance,and small-holder farming becomes peasant’s natural response owing to pluriactivity,local off-farm employment,reverse elimination,etc.In order to achieve smooth agricultural transformation of typical rural areas in the eastern China,it needs to promote professional differentiation among peasants,under clear policies adopted by central government.Providing comprehensive services for agricultural production and improving production skills and knowledge of farmers who are still living in the countryside will effectively stimulate the process of agricultural transformation.
The characteristics of climatic change and river runoff, as well as the response of river runoff to climatic change in the northern Xinjiang are analyzed on the basis of the hydrological and meteorological data over the last 50 years by the methods of Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and the nonlinear regression model. The results show that: 1) The temperature and the precipitation increased significantly in the whole northern Xinjiang, but the precipitation displayed no obvious change, or even a decreasing trend in the northern mountainous area of the northern Xinjiang. 2) River runoff varied in different regions in the northern Xinjiang. It significantly increased in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang (p=0.05), while slightly increased in the west of the northern Xinjiang. 3) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects river runoff by influencing temperature and precipitation. The NAO and precipitation had apparent significant correlations with the river runoff, but the temperature did not in the northern Xinjiang. Since the mid-1990s river runoff increase was mainly caused by the increasing temperature in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang. Increased precipitation resulted in increased river runoff in the west of the northern Xinjiang.
The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on sorption/desorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in two wetland soils and one reclaimed wetland soil were investigated. DOC concentrations added were 0-600 mg/L. Laboratory incubations of sorption/desorption of DOC had been carried out at -15℃ for 10 h, and then at +5℃ for 13 h. Soil samples were refrozen and thawed subsequently for 5 cycles. Initial Mass model was used to describe sorption behavior of DOC. The results indicate that freeze-thaw cycles can significantly increase the sorption capacity of DOC and reduce the desorption capacity of DOC in the three soils. The freeze-thaw effects on desorption of DOC in soils increase with the increasing freeze-thaw cycles. The conversion of natural wetlands to soybean farmland can decrease the sorption capacity and increase the desorption capacity of DOC in soils. Global warming and reclamation may increase DOC release, and subsequently increase the loss of carbon and the emission of greenhouse gas.
As the most important ecosystem in Beijing, the forest supports a lot of ecosystem services to local and around communities, which plays a key role in the maintenance of urban ecological security.However, the valuation on the forest ecosystem services based on regional scale could not provide precise and reasonable values for forestry sector management.In this study, we estimated the magnitudes and economic values of the forest ecosystem services in Beijing at sublot level.The economic value of forest ecosystem services in Beijing was estimated to be 19 339.71×10 6 yuan(RMB) in 2004.Among all the ecosystem services indicators we estimated in this study, only fruit, timber and part of the recreation(which only include the tourism income from the forest parks and scenic areas, but not include that from other forest types) were measured in the social economic system.As estimated in this study, more than 82.19% of the economic value of forest ecosystem services could not be measured in the socio-economic statistical system.The importance of forest ecosystem services in Beijing to human welfare was underestimated by the socio-economic system.Therefore, the policies about the eco-compensation of forest ecosystem services should be established to maintain the sustainable supply of the forest ecosystem services in Beijing.
This paper examines the organisational hierarchies and decision making processes of two Chinese multinational enterprises operating in Vietnam—China Luoyang Floating Glass Corp.(CLFG) and China TCL Holdings Co.Ltd.(TCL).For this study, research data were obtained from in-depth interviews of more than 20 government officials in P.R.China and Vietnam, and managers and staff of those two enterprises.Results indicate that the organisational structures of the two enterprises are still vertical but complex, although moderate changes made to them post the nationwide economic reform of China.Consequently, decision making process follows a "top-down" model, sometimes, with insufficient grassroots information.Findings are discussed in the light of political, social and cultural milieu, and implications are drawn for the management of Chinese multinational enterprises operating in overseas markets.Both CLFG and China TCL are structured on task specialisations.However, departmentalisation in TCL's overseas division in head office is not only based on products, but also on geographical regions of markets.The organisational structure of TCL in Vietnam is less complex than the international division, but it is more centralised.Decision making at TCL combines more traditional Chinese business philosophy with modern western organisational characteristics.TCL has a strong western influence in its management style.However, some traditional characteristics such as "hero" leadership influence and political influence are involved with decision making at TCL.Amongst others, the transitional economy, social culture, poor management system and political sensitivity have been major elements influencing decision making.In the case of CLFG, some decisions have been made before proper information has been gathered and analysed.
The purification law of nitrogen in Deyeuxia angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Deyeuxia angustifolia-Carex lasiocarpa combined wetland systems in the Sanjiang Plain, China was studied by field simulation experiment. The results indicate that the removal rates of TN, NH4+-N and NO3--N in above three types of wetlands present an obvious logarithm growth trend along with the time. There are evident removal effects for NH4+-N and NO3--N in water bodies of wetlands after the 30th day of experiment, with the removal rates over 80.0%, but the removal rate of TN is slightly low, being 63.1%-74.3%. NO3--N is most quickly removed by the combined wetland, and NH4+-N by Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland. The removal speeds of TN by the three wetland systems are comparatively slow, of which the Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland is the fastest. In consideration of plant growth season, Deyeuxia angustifolia wetland has much more practical application value in purifying nitrogen. These results can provide references for the study on the purification function of wetlands and the control of non-point source pollution in Northeast China.
China is entering a critical and accelerating phase of urbanization. As one of the most urbanized regions in China, the
Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta has experienced dramatic urbanization and urban transformation. However, in the recent years, many
changes have taken place in this region and there is limited attention to the regional urbanization path evolution, its problems and the
way to solve these problems. Therefore, we should revisit the urbanization process in the Changjiang River Delta again. In this paper, we
revisited urbanization paths of the Changjiang River Delta by data analysis, influence factors of urbanization by the Gray Relational
Analysis, and major challenges to urbanization of the Changjiang River Delta by theoretical considerations. We found that the urbanization
of the Changjiang River Delta had experienced several stages of large-scale spatial and urban system restructuring. Within the Changjiang
River Delta, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Jiangshu had experienced different urbanization path with local characteristics. But with their
development model gradually converging, their urbanization model is also converging. We also found that the major influence factors
affecting the Changjiang River Delta urbanization were dynamic change and urbanization was driven by different key factors in different
socio-economic development stages. Meanwhile, the Changjiang River Delta urbanization is facing many problems such as existing
institutional arrangements, including the hukou (household registration) system and others which can not meet the needs of current
socio-economic development and urbanization. Therefore, it is imperative to promote institutional innovation and adopt a new
urbanization development strategy for the sake of the orderly and sustainable urbanization development in the Changjiang River Delta.
A total of 30 surface sediments samples from the estuary wetland of the Tangxi River, Chaohu Lake Basin were obtained and tested.Enrichment factor(EF) and geoaccumulation index(Igeo) as well as multivariate statistical analysis methods including Factor Analysis(FA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis(HCA) were applied for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments.The results of EF values show that the pollution of copper(Cu) and cadmium(Cd) occurs in the estuarine sediments, and that zinc(Zn), lead(Pb) and chrome(Cr) may originate from crustal materials or natural weathering process.The mean EF values of the five heavy metals are in the decreasing order:Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr.Based on the Igeo of target heavy metals, the surface sediments collected from the study area can be approximately categorized as unpolluted with Zn, Pb and Cr, and moderately polluted with Cu and Cd.The degree of heavy metal pollution decreases in the order of Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr.Three groups of pollution factors are presented from FA:Zn-TOC, Cu-Cd and Cr-Pb, which respectively accounte for 27.22%, 25.20% and 21.05% of variance.By means of HCA, a total number of seven groups are distinguished from 30 sampling sites.Results indicate that Cu and Cd are the prior controlled pollutants in the estuarine sediments of the Tangxi River.