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    Spatial Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Resilience from the Perspective of Daily Activity: A Case Study of Nanjing, China
    SUN Honghu, ZHEN Feng
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 387-399.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1201-0
    摘要243)      PDF (5642KB)(176)   
    Based on the connotation of urban resilience and the main contradictions of China’s urbanization, urban resilience is placed within the main daily activities contradictory scene of the urban man-land system to build a theoretical framework of urban activity resilience. Relying on geographic big data, this study identifies the spatial characteristics of activity resilience, reveals the impact of activity environment on activity resilience in Nanjing, and proposes countermeasures. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Activity resilience presents a composite spatial structure of circles and clusters, and most areas are resilient but at a low level. 2) There are significantly positive and negative global autocorrelation between activity resilience and activity scale, and activity stability. Simultaneously, there also exists a local spatial autocorrelation with the opposite positive and negative trends. 3) Activity environment has a significant effect on activity resilience, and the degree and direction of influence among different dimensions and regions are heterogeneous. 4) For activity resilience, it is necessary to increase the matching degree between the scale and stability of activities, and reduce the excessive concentration and flow of activities. For the activity environment, it is necessary to improve the accessibility of the ecological environment, strengthen the high-quality supply of the infrastructure environment, optimize the balance of the location environment, and promote the inclusiveness of the social environment.
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    Spatial and Temporal Evolution Characteristics of PM2.5 in China from 1998 to 2016
    LI Hua, TONG Helong, WU Xianhua, LU Xiaoli, MENG Shuhan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 947-958.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1157-5
    录用日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要218)      PDF (2968KB)(281)   
    The rapid development of China's economy and urbanization has given rise to noticeable environmental problems, among which the change of air quality has received extensive attention. The panel data of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) in 343 prefecture-level cities in China from 1998 to 2016 were statistically analyzed to reveal the characteristics of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of China's air quality in the past two decades. The results show that: 1) the overall deterioration trend of air quality is obvious throughout the country. The variation trend of PM2.5 was divided into three phases: rapid-growth phase (1998–2007), lag phase (2006–2011) and mildly-incremental phase (2012–2016), with their average growth rates of 7.19%, −3.59% and 0.52%, respectively. 2) The spatial difference of PM2.5 values in China increased significantly with time. Since 2003, the high-value area in the east has expanded rapidly, and polarization became much more pronounced. The change rate of PM2.5 is high in the east and west and low in the middle. The change rates of most areas in the west exceed more than 80%, and in the east lie somewhere between 40% and 60%. In the midlands, the change rate is not large and some regions even show a negative growth. 3) The change rate of PM2.5 is also high in areas with higher values. However, in regions where the change rate of PM2.5 is high, the value of PM2.5 is not always high. The high change rate is mainly attributable to the low base value of PM2.5 and the cities concerned belong to sensitive areas. 4) According to the PM2.5 warning index, the number of strong, medium, weak and non-warning areas in China is 45, 85, 159 and 54, respectively.
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    Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Rural Labor Migration in China: Evidence from the Migration Stability under New-type Urbanization
    DENG Wei, ZHANG Shaoyao, ZHOU Peng, PENG Li, LIU Ying, WAN Jiangjun
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 749-764.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1147-7
    摘要172)      PDF (3495KB)(230)   
    Although the factors affecting rural-to-urban migration have been discussed and analyzed in detail, few studies have examined the spatiotemporal dynamic characteristics of rural migrants' employment and working-cities in the post-immigrate era, which is essential for the citizenization and social integration of new-type urbanization in China. This study uses survey data from rural migration laborers across the eastern, central, and western China to construct a comprehensive labor migration stability index, and compares the determinants of the migration stability of rural labor among cities and industries using Geodetector. The results are as follows:1) Compared with the midwestern cities, eastern cities have attracted younger and more skilled rural labor, and industries with higher technical content have higher migration stability among rural laborers. 2) Rural laborers more often adapt to changes by changing employment instead of changing working-cities. 3) The individual experiences of rural laborers and urban characteristics have significant impacts on the stability of migration, and family and societal guanxi (Chinese interpersonal relationships) enhance migration stability. 4) A unified labor market and convenient transportation have somewhat slowed industrial transfers and labor backflow. This study enhances our understanding of the roles of industrial transfer and new-type urbanization in shaping the labor geography landscape and provides policy implications for the promotion of people-oriented urbanization.
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    Optimization of Rural Settlement Distributions Based On the Ecological Security Pattern: A Case Study of Da'an City in Jilin Province of China
    YIN Jingbo, LI Hong, WANG Dongyan, LIU Shuhan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 824-838.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1128-x
    录用日期: 2020-04-28

    摘要144)      PDF (935KB)(464)   
    Following the trends of Chinese rural transformation development, and the sustainable development goals for resources and environment, reasonable arranging the potential development space and the ecological space, so as to optimize the distributions of rural settlement would be the key challenge for rural areas in ecologically fragile regions. From the perspective of maintaining regional ecological security, this paper takes Da'an City, a typical ecological fragile region in Jilin Province, as the case area, constructing the comprehensive ecological security pattern (ESP) on basis of landscape ecology, and applying the landscape pattern indexes to quantitative analysis the spatial distribution characteristics of rural settlements. Then, different optimization directions and management strategies are put forward for rural settlements in each secure zone under the comprehensive ESP. The experimental results showed that 1) the area of the low security zone, the general security zone, the moderate security zone and the extreme security zone was 1570.18 km2, 1463.36 km2, 1215.80 km2 and 629.77 km2, representing 32.18%, 29.99%, 24.92% and 12.91% of the total area of the target area, respectively. 2) The rural settlements in Da'an City were characterized by a high degree of fragmentation with a large number of small-scale patches. 3) The area of rural settlements in the ecological relocation zone, the in situ remediation zone, the limited development zone and the key development zone was 22.80 km2, 42.31 km2, 36.28 km2 and 19.40 km2, accounting for 18.88%, 35.03%, 30.04% and 16.06% of the total area of rural settlements, respectively. Then, different measures were proposed for settlements in different optimization zones in order to scientifically plan important ecological space, production space and living space in rural areas. This paper aims to provide fundamental support for rural settlements based on redistribution from the perspective of landscape ecology and provide insights for rural planning and rural habitat environmental improvement.
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    Effect of Hydrological Connectivity on Soil Carbon Storage in the Yellow River Delta Wetlands of China
    FENG Jiuge, LIANG Jinfeng, LI Qianwei, ZHANG Xiaoya, YUE Yi, GAO Junqin
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 197-208.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1185-9
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要141)      PDF (2816KB)(321)   
    Hydrological connectivity has significant effects on the functions of estuarine wetland ecosystem. This study aimed to examine the dynamics of hydrological connectivity and its impact on soil carbon pool in the Yellow River Delta, China. We calculated the hydrological connectivity based on the hydraulic resistance and graph theory, and measured soil total carbon and organic carbon under four different hydrological connectivity gradients (Ⅰ 0?0.03, Ⅱ 0.03?0.06, Ⅲ 0.06?0.12, Ⅳ 0.12?0.39). The results showed that hydrological connectivity increased in the north shore of the Yellow River and the south tidal flat from 2007 to 2018, which concentrated in the mainstream of the Yellow River and the tidal creek. High hydrological connectivity was maintained in the wetland restoration area. The soil total carbon storage and organic carbon storage significantly increased with increasing hydrological connectivity from Ⅰ to Ⅲ gradient and decreased in Ⅳ gradient. The highest soil total carbon storage of 0?30 cm depth was 5172.34 g/m2, and organic carbon storage 2764.31 g/m2 in Ⅲ gradient. The hydrological connectivity changed with temporal and spatial change during 2007?2018 and had a noticeable impact on soil carbon storage in the Yellow River Delta. The results indicated that appropriate hydrological connectivity, i.e. 0.08, could effectively promote soil carbon storage.
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    Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ecological Security in the Wanjiang City Belt, China
    CAO Yuhong, LIU Meiyun, ZHANG Yu, CHEN Chen, CAO Weidong
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1052-1064.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1156-6
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要119)      PDF (4999KB)(79)   
    Ecological security is the foundation and guarantee of sustainable development, and its importance is increasingly widely recognized and valued by the world. The Yangtze River Basin is an important ecological security barrier in China and the Wanjiang City Belt (WCB) along the Yangtze River is directly related to the ecological security pattern of the entire basin. Based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model and a geographical information system (GIS) platform, an ecosystem security evaluation index system was constructed to measure and evaluate the evolution of ecosystem security in the WCB, China. Results showed that: 1) From 2000 to 2018, the overall level of ecological security in the study area was in a state of either early warning or medium warning, but the level of ecological security in each prefecture-level city was significantly different. 2) From the perspective of the evolution of the ecosystem, the value of its comprehensive evaluation index dropped from 4.255 in 2000 to 3.885 in 2018. From the perspective of subsystems, the value of Pressure comprehensive evaluation index is much higher than that of other subsystems, indicating that during the rapid development of the social economy, the pressure on the natural environment tended to rise, and triggered changes in the State and Response subsystems. 3) The coefficient of variation (CV) of the Driver was much higher than other factors influencing the ecological security system. There are large differences in the economic development and ecological evolution of the cities in the WCB. This study has improved the theoretical research on regional ecological security, and has certain practical guiding significance for building a beautiful, green and sustainable China and promoting global ecological security.
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    Regional Sustainable Assessment at City Level Based on CSDIS (China Sustainable Development Indicator System) Concept in the New Era, China
    WEI Jianfei, DING Zhiwei, MENG Yiwei, LI Qiang
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 976-992.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1158-4
    录用日期: 2020-08-27
    预出版日期: 2020-08-27

    摘要109)      PDF (13098KB)(456)   
    The core issue of sustainable development refers to the coordinated development of economic-social-environmental issues. In the present study, by complying with the China Sustainable Development Indicator System (CSDIS) concept, a comprehensive index system was built; besides, Natural Breaks (Jenks) Classification Method, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis and Geographic Detector Analysis were conducted to delve into the sustainability and coordinated degree at city level in China from 2007 to 2017. The achieved results are presented as follows. First, for spatial differentiation, the overall spatial distribution pattern was characterized by the high-value units in eastern China and the low-value units in western China from 2007 to 2017. To be specific, the high-value units were radiated along the Beijing-Guangdong Axis (Jing-Guang Axis) centered on the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the middle-value units were distributed in strips along the coast, and the low-value units were vastly gathered in western China and gradually break via the Hu Huanyong line (Hu Line) in south China from 2007 to 2017. More specifically, based on the five subsystems, the pattern of each system was consistent with the whole, whereas the degree of concentration was different. Second, for spatial correlation, the significant High-High (HH) areas were primarily distributed in the core of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions. The significant Low-Low (LL) areas were continuously distributed in the southwest China and broke through the Hu Line from 2007 to 2017. There were insufficient number of significant High-Low (HL) and significant Low-High (LH) areas, whereas the spatial agglomeration of them was less obvious. Third, for internal coupling coordination, the spatial differentiation between the coupling degree and the coupling coordinated degree was significantly consistent in 2007 and 2017. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta Regions have demonstrated a high level of coordinated evolution, and the pattern of western mountainous areas exhibited a low degree of coordinated growth. Lastly, based on the combination of quantitative and qualitative, its factors were underpinned by robust economic strength, the vitality support of the information level and the basic support function of the topography, active guidance of national policies and path dependence and industrial transfer.
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    Spatial Structure, Hierarchy and Formation Mechanisms of Scientific Collaboration Networks: Evidence of the Belt and Road Regions
    GU Weinan, LIU Hui
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 959-975.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1161-9
    摘要108)      PDF (3903KB)(158)   
    Scientific collaboration has become an important part of the people-to-people exchanges in the Belt and Road initiative, and remarkable progress has been made since 2013. Taking the 65 countries along the Belt and Road (BRI countries) as the research areas and using collaborated Web of Science (WOS) core collection papers to construct an international scientific collaboration matrix, the paper explores the spatial structure, hierarchy and formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks of 65 countries along the Belt and Road. The results show that: 1) Beyond the Belt and Road regions (BRI regions), Central & Eastern Europe, China and West Asia & North Africa have formed a situation in which they all have the most external links with other countries beyond BRI regions. China has the dominant role over other BRI countries in generating scientific links. The overall spatial structure has changed to a skeleton structure consisting of many dense regions, such as Europe, North America, East Asia and Oceania. 2) Within the Belt and Road regions, Central & Eastern Europe has become the largest collaboration partner with other sub-regions in BRI countries. The spatial structure of scientific collaboration networks has transformed from the ‘dual core’ composed of China and the Central & Eastern Europe region, to the ‘multi-polarization’ composed of ‘one zone and multi-points’. 3) The hierarchical structure of scientific collaboration networks presents a typical ‘core-periphery’ structure, and changes from ‘single core’ to ‘double cores’. 4) Among the formation mechanisms of scientific collaboration networks, scientific research strength and social proximity play the most important roles, while geographical distance gradually weakens the hindrance to scientific collaboration.
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    Building Height Trends and Their Influencing Factors under China's Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Guangzhou, 1960-2017
    SUN Wu, LI Tao
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 993-1004.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1162-8
    摘要106)      PDF (6523KB)(98)   
    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of three-dimensional urban forms, especially building height, can have important implications for improving urban air quality and mitigating the urban heat island effect by optimizing urban planning and management policies. This study investigated building height evolution and its influencing factors over approximately half a century (1960–2017) in Guangzhou, China. The results indicated that the logarithmic declines in height, quantity, and area of urban buildings followed Zapf's law, which restricts the three-dimensional shape of the urban form. The urban building height decreased from the center to the periphery of the city and decreased with decreasing altitude and increasing distance from main roads. These characteristics constituted the three main spatial differentiation rules of building height in the central district of Guangzhou, and all exhibited a logarithmic decrease, which gradually strengthened over time. The development of a double-layered height structure of low-rise and high-rise buildings between 1990 and 2017 was a notable manifestation of the increase in vertical urban height over time. The three factors of city center, altitude, and accessibility, which represent centrality, low relief, proximity to water, and proximity to road networks, highlighted the roles of traffic accessibility and commercial attraction in building height evolution. The importance of location macroscopically depends on the combined effect of the geographical pattern, urban planning, and market forces of cities located on a plain near hill or by a river. The principle of profit orientation restricted spatiotemporal building height patterns.
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    The Environmental Impacts of Informal Economies in China: Inverted U-shaped Relationship and Regional Variances
    YANG Jiangmin, TAN Yiming, XUE Desheng, HUANG Gengzhi, XING Zuge
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (4): 585-599.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1210-z
    录用日期: 2021-04-29

    摘要106)      PDF (3560KB)(111)   
    This paper aims to the debate on the nexus between informal economies and the environment by investigating the long-term dynamic impacts of China’s informal economies on pollution and considering regional differences in informal economies’ pollution. This paper uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model to estimate the size of informal economies and employs econometric models to examine their relationships to pollution based on provincial-level panel data from 2000 to 2017. The results indicate that informal economies’ effects on environmental pollution are not purely positive or negative. Rather, our model indicates that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between informal economies and pollution in the long run in China; this means that the level of environmental pollution increases at first and then decreases with the growth of informal economies. Further analysis shows that while this inverted, U-shaped relationship is significant in different regions of China, it is affected by different environmental impact factors. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications for environmental protection and sustainable development.
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    Spatial-temporal Evolution and Determinants of the Belt and Road Ini-tiative: A Maximum Entropy Gravity Model Approach
    HUANG Qinshi, ZHU Xigang, LIU Chunhui, WU Wei, LIU Fengbao, ZHANG Xinyi
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 839-854.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1144-x
    录用日期: 2020-06-23

    摘要102)      PDF (6424KB)(248)   
    The spatial interaction model is an effective way to explore the geographical disparities inherent in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) by simulating spatial flows. The traditional gravity model implies the hypothesis of equilibrium points without any reference to when or how to achieve it. In this paper, a dynamic gravity model was established based on the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) theory to estimate and monitor the interconnection intensity and dynamic characters of bilateral relations. In order to detect the determinants of interconnection intensity, a Geodetector method was applied to identify and evaluate the determinants of spatial networks in five dimensions. The empirical study clearly demonstrates a heterogeneous and non-circular spatial structure. The main driving forces of spatial-temporal evolution are foreign direct investment, tourism and railway infrastructure construction, while determinants in different sub-regions show obvious spatial differentiation. Southeast Asian countries are typically multi-island area where aviation infrastructure plays a more important role. North and Central Asian countries regard oil as a pillar industry where power and port facilities have a greater impact on the interconnection. While Western Asian countries are mostly influenced by the railway infrastructure, Eastern European countries already have relatively robust infrastructure where tariff policies provide a greater impetus.
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    Spatio-temporal Evolution of China's Economic Power Based on Asymmetric Theory
    YAO Yangyang, ZHANG Guojun, XU Zhihua, BIAN Yan
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 765-775.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1148-6
    摘要99)      PDF (773KB)(108)   
    In the 21st century, economic interdependence between countries has gradually become an important source of state power. Globalization and the rise of China's economy have had a significant impact on other economies around the world. China's economic influence is becoming more and more important. On the basis of the sensitivity dependence and vulnerability dependence of asymmetric interdependence theory, the economic spillover between countries is selected to construct a quantitative model to measure economic power. This paper analyzes the evolution of China's economic power both in time and space from 2000 to 2014. Four conclusions were drawn from the study:1) The spatial spillover effect of China's economy on other countries has been continuously growing since the beginning of the 21st century, which has brought about the rapid increase in China's economic power; 2) China's economic power has been significantly strengthened both in intensity and scope, having expanded from the surrounding countries to the whole world. In 2014, China had a high amount of economic power over 18 countries from the 41 main countries in the world, compared to 2 in 2000; 3) China's power in terms of sensitivity dependence takes on an evolutionary trend from point distribution to flaky growth, and it shows a process ‘from point to line’ from the aspect of spatial diffusion. Furthermore, China's power in terms of vulnerability dependence shows a trend that extends from the surrounding countries to European and South American countries; 4) comprehensively, China's power in terms of vulnerability dependence is higher than that of sensitivity dependence, and the spatial distribution pattern demonstrates a process from centralization to decentralization from 2000 to 2014.
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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of Regional Ecological Civilisa-tion Construction in China
    DU Yan, QIN Weishan, SUN Jianfeng, WANG Xiaohui, GU Haoxin
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 776-790.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1145-9
    录用日期: 2020-06-23

    摘要97)      PDF (9586KB)(93)   
    Ecological civilisation construction is a strategy for regional sustainable development based on a regional system of human-land relations. The comprehensive measurement and regional differentiation in construction levels are the key issues of ecological civilisation construction. This study aims to build 35 index systems that coalesce on four aspects:ecological economic adjustment and operation, ecological and social development and progress, ecological resources and environmental security, and ecological institutional and cultural awareness. We measured and evaluated the level of ecological civilisation construction of 329 cities (prefecture-level cities, autonomous prefectures and leagues) in 2018 using a comprehensive evaluation system and a spatial autocorrelation method to assess spatial differences in the level of ecological civilisation construction across China. This approach takes ‘the humanities-economic geography’ comprehensive perspective and uses a GWR (geographically weighted regression) model to analyse 10 influencing factors. Results show that:1) the level of ecological construction can be divided into five types:higher, high, medium, low, and lower levels, according to the evaluation score. The five types are spindle-shaped in quantity and there is a significant imbalance in their spatial distribution, mainly trending from the southeast coast to the northwest. The land is decreasing, and the southern region is higher in level than the northern region. 2) The results of the spatial autocorrelation method show obvious spatial differences in ecological civilisation construction across China and that the level of ecological civilisation construction is positively autocorrelated. From east to west, the hot zone gradually transitions to a cold zone. A high-high type is mainly distributed in eastern coastal cities of China, and the number of high-low and low-high types are small. The low-low type is mainly distributed in the northwestern and northeastern regions. 3) The effect of influencing factors is heterogeneous in their spatial distribution, and the abundance of ecological resources is the most influential factor. According to the main influencing factors, each region should adhere to the principle of differentiation according to local conditions when choosing its ecological civilisation construction path and establishing an assessment mechanism. This study provides a scientific basis for enriching the regional level measurement of ecological civilisation construction, clarifying the current level of ecological civilisation construction in China, and implementing the regional differentiation path of ecological civilisation construction.
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    Analysis of Spatial Scale Effect on Urban Resilience: A Case Study of Shenyang, China
    FENG Xinghua, LEI Jing, XIU Chunliang, LI Jianxin, BAI Limin, ZHONG Yexi
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1005-1021.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1163-7
    摘要90)      PDF (5485KB)(159)   
    Based on urban physical space and theory of landscape ecology, a triune assessment framework —‘size-density- morphology’—was constructed in order to analyze the spatial pattern and the scale effect of urban resilience in Shenyang of China in 2015, and to explore the main impact factors of landscape under different spatial scale backgrounds. The results show that: 1) Urban resilience is an optimal combination of the resilience of size, density, and morphology. The urban resilience of Shenyang displays scale effect; the overall resilience level increases with the increase in scale, while the spatial difference and spatial similarity tend to decrease resilience. 2) As 2 km, 1 km and 2 km are scale inflection points of average value curves for size resilience, density resilience and morphology resilience, respectively in an urban setting; the optimal scale unit of comprehensive resilience is 1 km. Choosing 1 km–2 km as the basic spatial scale better depicts overall pattern and detailed characteristics of resilience in Shenyang. The spatial amplitudes of 0.5 km and 1 km are sensitive points for spatial autocorrelation of morphology and density resilience, size, and comprehensive resilience to scale effect. 3) The major landscape factors of urban size and morphology resilience transform with scale expansion. Aggregation index (AI) has a significant impact on urban resilience at different scales; its influence increases significantly with the increase in scale. 4) The high-level area of comprehensive resilience in Shenyang is the eastern ecological corridor area, while the low value area is the peripheral extension area of the city. To promote the overall level of resilience in Shenyang, this paper argues that the construction of ecological infrastructure should be strengthened in the peripheral extension area in a balanced manner. In the city center, population and building density should be controlled; the intensity of human activities should be reduced; impetus should be placed on landscape heterogeneity; and the homogeneous expansion of the area of construction should be prevented. In the eastern ecological corridors, the exploitation of ecosystem lands should be strictly controlled, and the integrity of the green landscape patches should be maintained.
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    The Community Renewal of Shantytown Transformation in Old Industrial Cities: Evidence from Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang, China
    DONG Lijing, WANG Yongchao, LIN Jiayi, ZHU Ermeng
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (6): 1022-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1164-6
    摘要86)      PDF (2219KB)(222)   
    There are many problems, such as poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure and how to improve the ecological environment, in the shantytowns of old industrial cities. Shantytowns are the most centralized areas with different contradictions, referred to as the ‘problem areas’ of urban sustainable development. The shantytown transformation of old industrial cities is a typical process of unit community disintegration, which is reflected not only in the reconstruction of physical space but also in the community renewal of social spatial integration and culture reconstruction. Based on qualitative research, questionnaires and in-depth interviews, taking Tiexi Worker Village in Shenyang as a research case, this paper attempts to analyse the characteristics and driving forces of the community renewal of shantytown transformation in old industrial cities. We found that the physical space of Tiexi Worker Village has changed considerably, which is embodied in its land use structure, living environment and community service facilities, reflecting the development of community function from simple industrial function to comprehensive functions. The residents in this community have experienced a transformation from a period of homogeneity to one of heterogeneity. The social network of the community has been destroyed. Social stratification, social differentiation and higher fluidity have occurred. Community renewal is mainly affected by macro factors such as policy regulation, economic driving, condition constraints, and micro factors such as residents' choice of living space and willingness to renew their communities. The transformation policy of the old industrial zone and the development policy of the new urban area are the fundamental and deep-seated reasons for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which determine the direction of the renewal and development of the community. The paid use of land and the development of the real estate industry are the direct stimulating factors for the renewal of Tiexi Worker Village, which become the direct reasons for the spatial transformation. The changes in the population in urban and rural areas and the promotion of traffic are the driving factors for the renewal of the community, while the choice of residents and their willingness regarding community renewal are the endogenous forces for promoting community renewal. Finally, the author attempts to put forward a model of the interlaced mechanism of the forming of community renewal at the macroscopic and microcosmic levels, which are the urban renewal and reconstruction and social space differentiation of community residents, respectively.
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    Spatial Identification of Housing Vacancy in China
    PAN Jinghu, DONG Leilei
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 359-375.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1171-7
    录用日期: 2020-10-24

    摘要84)      PDF (4859KB)(146)   
    The housing vacancy rate (HVR) is an important index in assessing the healthiness of residential real estate market. In China, it is hardly to take advantage of the basic data of real estate information due to the opaque of those data. In this paper, the HVR is estimated to two scales. At the grid level, urban area ratio was calculated by nighttime images after eliminating outliers of nighttime images and night light intensity of non-residential pixels in mixed pixels by a proposed modified optimal threshold method, and built-up areas in each pixel were extracted from the land-cover data. Then, the HVR is calculated by comparing the light intensity of specific grid with the light intensity of full occupancy rate regions. At the administrative scale, the GCI (‘ghost city’ index) is constructed by calculating the ratio of the total light radiation intensity of a city to the total construction land area of the city. The overall spatial differentiation pattern of the vacant houses in the national prefecture level administrative regions is analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn: vacant housing is rare in certain eastern coastal cities and regions in China with relatively fast economic development. Cities based on exhausted resources, some mountainous cities, and cities with relatively backward economic development more typically showed high levels of housing vacancy. The GCI of prefecture-level administrative units gradually declined from north to south, whereas the east-west distribution showed a parabolic shape. As city level decreased, the GCI registered a gradual upward trend. China’s urban housing vacancy can be divided into five categories: industry or resources driven, government planned, epitaxy expansionary, environmental constraint and speculative activate by combining the spatial distribution of housing vacancy with the factors of natural environment, social economic development level, and population density into consideration.
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    Spatio-temporal Differentiation and Driving Factors of Industrial Ecology of Restricted Development Zone from Adaptive Perspective: A Case Study of Shandong, China
    GUO Fuyou, GAO Siqi, TONG Lianjun, QIU Fangdao, YAN Hengzhou
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 329-341.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1184-x
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要83)      PDF (1365KB)(181)   
    Based on the adaptive analysis paradigm, this paper constructs an evaluation index system and an evaluation model of the level of industrial ecology of a restricted development zone from the perspective of the industrial system and of the environmental system, and studies the spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and the driving factors of the level of industrial ecology of the restricted development zone of the Shandong Province, China, by using a variety of measurement methods. The results show that: 1) In the temporal dimension, the level of industrial ecology of the research area increased from 2005 to 2017, while in the regional dimension, it was higher in the eastern coastal areas, followed by the northwestern area and the southwestern area; 2) In the spatial dimension, from 2005 to 2017 the level of industrial ecology of the research area had a clear spatial dependence, and the regional spatial agglomeration of the restricted development zones with similar industrial ecology levels become increasingly evident; 3) On the whole, the industrial ecology level in the study area had a clear spatial differentiation pattern, as it was higher in the north and in the east and lower in the south and in the west. Moreover, its evolution model changed from a ‘three-core driven model’ to a ‘spatial scattered mosaic distribution model’, and then to a ‘single-core driven model’; 4) Industrial ecology was positively correlated with economic development, foreign investment, science and technology, and negatively correlated with the government role, while industrial structure and environmental regulation failed to pass the statistical significance test.
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    Impact of Land Use Change on Vegetation Carbon Storage During Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
    WANG Zhi, XU Lihua, SHI Yijun, MA Qiwei, WU Yaqi, LU Zhangwei, MAO Liwei, PANG Enqi, ZHANG Qi
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (2): 209-222.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1183-y
    录用日期: 2021-01-05

    摘要83)      PDF (1828KB)(146)   
    Land use changes have significant impacts on the carbon balance in an urban ecosystem. When there is rapid development in urbanizing regions, land use changes have a dramatic effect on vegetation carbon storage (VCS). This study investigates the impact of land use change on VCS in a period of rapid urbanization in Hangzhou, China. The results show that: 1) from 2000 to 2015, land use in Hangzhou underwent huge changes, mainly reflected in decrease in cropland and wetland and the increased settlement. More than 34.58% of the land was transformed, and the land use changes are primarily characterized by a significant decrease in cropland due to the occupation by settlement. 2) over the 15 years, changes in land use led to a decrease of 3.93×105 t of VCS in the urban ecosystem. The large-scale transformation of cropland and wetland, which have a comparatively high carbon density, into land for settlement exerted a negative impact on VCS. 3) The central city, which with the Circle-E/I/O mode, had the lowest comprehensive land use dynamic degree, leading to moderate land use change and an increase in VCS; Yuhang and Xiaoshan, which with Multicore-E/O/I mode and Fan-E/O/I modes, had a higher comprehensive land use dynamic degree, drastic changes in land use, and a decrease in VCS. This study proposes a reliable method of estimating changes in VCS, clarifies the relationship between land use change and VCS during rapid urbanization, and provides recommendations for sustainable urban development.
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    Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect SO2 Emissions in the Yangtze River Delta? A Spatial Econometric Analysis
    GUO Zheng, Sophia Shuang CHEN, YAO Shimou, Anna Charles MKUMBO
    中国地理科学    2021, 31 (3): 400-412.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-021-1197-5
    录用日期: 2021-02-06

    摘要77)      PDF (2978KB)(73)   
    As the major source of air pollution, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have become the focus of global attention. However, existing studies rarely consider spatial effects when discussing the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and SO2 emissions. This study took the Yangtze River Delta as the research area and used the spatial panel data of 26 cities in this region for 2004–2017. The study investigated the spatial agglomeration effects and dynamics at work in FDI and SO2 emissions by using global and local measures of spatial autocorrelation. Then, based on regression analysis using a results of traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) model and a spatial econometric model, the spatial Durbin model (SDM) with spatial-time effects was adopted to quantify the impact of FDI on SO2 emissions, so as to avoid the regression results bias caused by ignoring the spatial effects. The results revealed a significant spatial autocorrelation between FDI and SO2 emissions, both of which displayed obvious path dependence characteristics in their geographical distribution. A series of agglomeration regions were observed on the spatial scale. The estimation results of the SDM showed that FDI inflow promoted SO2 emissions, which supports the pollution haven hypothesis. The findings of this study are significant in the prevention and control of air pollution in the Yangtze River Delta.
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    Effects of the Northeast China Revitalization Strategy on Regional Economic Growth and Social Development
    REN Wanxia, XUE Bing, YANG Jun, LU Chengpeng
    中国地理科学    2020, 30 (5): 791-809.   DOI: 10.1007/s11769-020-1149-5
    摘要74)      PDF (889KB)(91)   
    Measuring the economic and social effects of the Northeast China Revitalization Strategy is critical to addressing regional sustainable development in China. To shed light on this issue, an integrated perspective was adopted that is combined with the difference-in-differences method to measure the effects of the strategy on economic growth and social development in Northeast China. The findings suggest that the strategy has significantly improved regional economic growth and per-capita income by increasing its gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita by 25.70% and 46.00%, respectively. However, the strategy has significantly worsened the regional employment in the secondary industry of the region. In addition, the strategy has not significantly improved regional infrastructural road, education investment or social security, and has had no significant effect on mitigating regional disparity. In addition, the policy effects are highly heterogeneous across cities based on city size and characteristics. Therefore, there is no simple answer regarding whether the Northeast China Revitalization Strategy has reached its original goals from an integrated perspective. The next phase of the strategy should emphasize improving research and development (R&D) and human capital investments based on urban heterogeneity to prevent conservative path-dependency and the lock-in of outdated technologies.
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